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test #3

Stack #166434

Long bones Longer than wide, femur, humerus, fibula, tibia, radius, ulna ( arms and legs)
Short bones cube shaped (wrist/ankle)(carpal/tarsal)
Flat bones thin surface for muscle attatchment, cranial bones,sternum, ribs
Irregular bones complex shapes, facial bones, vertebrae
Diaphysis shaft
Epiphysis ends
Metaphysis where ends join shaft
Articular cartilage hyaline cartilage
Periosteum outer cover around bone
Endosteum lines inside of cavity
Medullary cavity cavity inside with yellow marrow
Osseous tissue matrix is 25% collagen, 50% mineral salts
Osteoblasts bone building cells, become osteocytes as build matrix around themselves
Osteocytes mature bone cell, no cell division, maintain bone
Osteoclasts cells to reabsorb bone, in the endosteum lysosomal enzyme
Haversian system Osteon, units of bone tissue, has Haversian (central) canal that runs longitudinally down center
Volkmann"s canals transverse canals, has artery vein, nerve and lymph connect to meduallry cavity, periosteum at Haversian canals
Concentric lamellae hard rings of calcified bone around c anal
Lacunae space between lamellae, contain osteocytes
Canaliculi channels raidiating out from lacunae, have extra celluar fluid and connect with each other, contain process of osteocytes
Trabeculae lattice of thin column of bone, red marrow in spaces and osteocytes
PTH parathyroid hormone, negative feedback loop, stimulates osteroclasts for bone reabsorption to release Ca++ inton blood, promotes absorption of Ca++ in gut and decreased loss from kidneys
Calcitonin made by thyroid, keeps Ca++ in bone, inhibits osteoclasts
Thyroid hormones promote normal bone growth
Insulin secreted by pancreas, promote normal bone growth
HGH from pituitary, promote growth of all tissues, including bone (human growth hormone)
IGFs from liver, stimulated by HGH, promote tissue repair and bone growth (insulin-like growth factors)
Minerals Ca & P to calcify matrix, Ma - support of osteocytes
Vitamins V + A osteoblasts too much slows growth repair, Vit. C & collagen, matrix Vit. D for Ca absorption. too much is bone loss
Sutures joints between skull
Fontanelles soft spots on infants head (anterior, posterior,2 sphenoid, 2 mastiod) 12-18 months
Kyphosis anterior concave, posterior convex, normal in thoraic spine
Lordosis anterior convex, posterior concave, normal in cervical and lumbar spine
Synarthrosis immovable
Amphiarthrosis slightly moveable
Diarthrosis freely moveable
Fibrous joints little/no movement
Suture (fiberous joints) fiberous, synarthrosis, skull
Syndesmosis tibial/fibular joint, amphiarthrosis
Gomphosis peg in socket, (tooth) immoveable
Synchondrosis epiphyseal plate, hyaline cartilage, immoveable
symphysis broad flat fibrocartilage, IVD, pubic symphysis
Synovial cavity .
Articular cartilage .
Articular capsule .
Ligaments .
Fibrous capsule (outer layer) .
Articular fat pad .
Synovial membrane (inner layer) .
Synovial fluid .
Articular discs/menisci .
Protraction/retraction pull forward and back, shoulder, jaw
Inversion/eversion at the foot, inversion is sole face in, eversion is sole face out
Dorsi/plantar flexion at the ankle, point toes is plantar flex, pull toes towards head is dorsi flex
Pronation/supination at the arm, pronate is palm down, supinate is palm up
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Created by: vanessamay21