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Medical Terminology

Diseases and Disorders of the sensory organs/abbrev/terminology/procedures/equip

ABR Auditory brainstem response
Acc Accomodation
AD Right ear
AMD Age-related macular degeneration
AS Left ear (auris sinister)
AST Astigmatism
AU Both ears (aures unitas) or each ear
D Diopter(lens strength)
db Decibel (measurement of sound)
EOM Extraocular movement
HM Hand movement
IOFB Intraocular foreign body
IOP Intraocular pressure
L&D Light and dark percieved
LASIK Laser in situ keratomileusia
LCS Left convergent squint (eye turned inwards)
LDS Left divergent squint (eye turned outwards)
OD Oculus dexter (right eye)
OS oculus sinister (left eye)
OU oculus uterque(each eye)
PERLA (PERRLA) Pupils equal (round) react to light and accomodation
PDT photodynamic therapy
PND post-nasal drip (catarrh dripping down the back of the throat from the nasal passages and sinuses)
PRK photo-refractive keratotomy
RCS Right convergent squint (eye turns outwards)
RDS Right divergent squint (eye turns inwards)
REM Rapid eye movement
SC Without correction (spectacles)
Ts & As Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
T+ Increased intraocular pressure
T- Decreased intraocular pressure
VA Visual acuity (clarity or accuracy of vision)
VF Visual field
FUNDUS OF EYE The whole area at the back of the eye opposite the pupil
MACULA (FOVEA) Area on the retina with the greatest number of receptors for sight (central vision)
OPHTHALMIC OPTICIAN Person qualified to examine eyes, and prescribe and dispense spectacles
OPHTHALMOLOGIST Specialist in the diseases of the eye
OPHTHALMOLOGY Scientific study of the eye
OPTICIAN Person who makes and fits spectacles
OPTOMETRIST Person who measures/tests eyes and fits spectacles
ORTHOPTIST Person who treats squints
OTOLOGIST Medical specialist in treating ear disease
OTOLOGY Study of ear disease
OTORHINO-LARYNGOLOGIST Medical specialist in ear, nose and throat disease
OTORHINO-LARYNGOLOGY Study of the ear, nose and throat
REFRACTION Bending of light rays to measure the focusing of the eye mechanisms
6/6 VISION The normal ability to be able to read line six of the Snellen chart at six metres
AMBLYOPIA Dimness of vision
APHAKIA Condition where there is no lens present, e.g. after removal of cateract
ASTIGMATISM Eye defect usually of shape of cornea which is irregular in curvature, causing blurring of vision
AURAL POLYP Pedunculated (stalk-like)tumour in the ear- not malignant
BLEPHARITIS Inflammation of the eyelids
CATARACT Aopacity of the lens ir its capsule causing blurring of sight
CAULIFLOWER EAR Enlargement/deformity of the external ear due to haematoma formation after injury
CHOROIDITIS Iflammation of the choroid layer of the eyeball
CONDUCTION DEAFNESS Loss of hearing due to the failure of the vibrations caused by sound waves to be conducted to specialised nerve cells of the inner ear
CONJUNCTIVITIS Inflammation of the conjunctiva membrane covering the eyeball and lining eyelids
CORNEAL ULCER Open sore on cornea
DACRYOCYSTECTOMY Surgical removal of a tear sac
DACRYOCYSTITIS Inflammation of tear sacs
DACRYOLITH Stone in the tear duct
DACRYOSTENOSIS Narrowing of tear duct
DENDRITIC ULCER Corneal ulcer that has tree-like branches in shape (caused by herpes simplex virus-cold sore)
ECTROPION Eversion of eyelid(outward)
ENTROPIAN Inversion of the eyelid (inward)
GLAUCOMA A condition where intraocular pressure is raised- causing damage to the retina-leading to blindness if not controlled
GLUE EAR/SEROUS OTITIS MEDIA Presence of catarrh(fluid/pus) in middle ear
HEMIANOPIA Partial blindness-ability to see only half the visual field
HORDEOLUM STYE-infection of the eyelash follicle
HYPERMETROPIA Long-sightedness
INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE Pressure within the eyeball
IRIDOCYCLITIS Inflammmation of the iris and ciliary body (from where the lens is suspended)
IRITIS Inflammation of the muscular iris of the eye
KERATITIS Inflammation of the cornea
LABYRINTHITIS Inflammation of the inner ear
MACULAR DEGENERATION A degerneration of vision die to changes to the macular area of the eye-responsible for maximum vision-at present little effective treatment
MASTOIDITIS Inflammation of the mastoid antrum(cavity containing porous sieve-like bone) of the temporal bone of the skull
MEIBOMIAN CYST Blockage of ducts of specialised sebaceous glands of the eyelid known as meibomian glands
MENIERES DISEASE A syndrome causing vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus and deafness
MYOPIA Short-sightedness
NERVE DEAFNESS loss of hearing due to damage or disease of the nerve fibres
OPTIC NERVE Area at the back of eyeball-no rods or cones-optic nerve enters eyeball-examined with ophthalmoscope to detect swelling or abnormality to blood vessels or nervous system
OTITIS EXTERNA Inflammation of the external ear
OTITIS MEDIA Inflammation of the middle ear
OTORRHOEA Discharge from the ear
OTOSCLEROSIS Progressive hardening of the membranous bony labyrinth (lining of inner ear);hereditary in females-otoliths in middle ear also become fixed so cannot vibrate
PAPILLOEDEMA Oedema (free fluid present)of the optic nerve
PRESBYOPIA Old sight.Long sightedness due to failure of the lens capsule to accomodate, e.e. change shape of lens in order to focus close up objects -lens capsule becomes less elastic with ageing process
PROPTOSIS Eyeballs protude outwards/forwards
PTOSIS Drooping of the eyelid
RETINAL DETACHMENT Detachment of the retinal layer of eyeball from the choroid
RETINITIS Inflammation of the retina (nerve layer of the eyeball)
RETINOPATHY Disease of the retina
RODENT ULCER Slow growing malignant tumour of the top layer of skin causing destruction of tissue
SCIERITIS Inflammation of the sclera(tough outer coat of the eyeball)
SCOTOMA Normal and abnormal 'blind spots' in the visual fields
STRABISMUS Squint, i.e. failure of eyes to work evenly together
UVEITIS Inflammation of the uveal tract (iris, choroid and ciliary body)
AUDIOGRAM The recorded measurement of hearing
AUDIOMETER Instrument used to measure hearing
AUDIOMETRY Measurement of hearing
AURISCOPE (OTOSCOPE) Lighted instrument used to examine ear canal and eardrum
CORNEAL GRAFT Grafting a donor cornea into place
CRYOSURGERY Cooling or freezing the area which is being operated upon
DECIBELS A unit of hearing (measurement of sound)
EAR SYRINGING Removal of excessive wax by shringing external auditory canal with warm water
ENUCLEATION Removal of an organ from its place, e.g. eyeball from socket
GROMMETS Special valves fitted into eardrum to release pressure in middle ear and drain fluid
IRIDECTOMY Surgical removal of portion of iris, forming an artificial 'hole'
LASER IN SITU KERATOMILEUSIA (LASIK) A procedure in which the cornea is moulded surgically to correct short sight
LASER SURGERY Surgery usin a laser beam instead of a scalpel or stitching
MIOTICS Drops for constricting the pupil of the eye
MYDRIATICS Drops used to dilate the pupil of the eye
MYRINGOTOMY Cutting into the eardrum
OPHTHALMOSCOPE A lighted instrument used to examine the interior of the eyeball
OTOSCOPE Instrument for examining the ear
OTOSCOPY Examination of the ear with a lighted instrument
PARACENTESIS TYMPANI Drawing off fluid within the middle ear
PERIMETRY Plotting of the visual fields
PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY (PDT) Light sensitive substance injected via bloodstream-reaches the eye-light is directed into eye-which activates chemical causing it to stick to leaking blood vessels.Prevents formation of scar tissue on retina
PHOTO-REFRACTIVE KERATOTOMY(PRK) An older method of correcting short sight by surgery
RADICAL MASTOIDECTOMY Removal of large area of mastoid bone to prevent further infection and drain area of pus before advent of antibiotics - a complication of otitis media
REMOVAL OF CATERACT Operation to remove the opaque lens
RHINNE'S TEST Test for deafness using a tuned fork placed on auditory opening of the ear.In normal hearing it will not be heard when placed on mastoid area, but in conditions of middle ear deafness a tone will be heard by patient
SLIT LAMP Special machine used to examine the eyes
SNELLEN CHART Chart used to test visual acuity i.e. sight
STAPEFDECTOMY Sugical removal of the stapes (stirrup bone)in the middle ear
TARSOPLASTY Reshaping of the eyelid
TONOMETER An instrument used for measuring intra-ocular pressure (within eyeball)
TREPHINE Instrument used for cutting away circle of tissue
TYMPANOPLASY Reshaping the eardrum
VISUAL ACUITY The acuteness of sight
VISUAL FIELDS Measurment or plotting of the area of vision to establish any damage
WEBER'S TEST Test for comparison of the bone conduction of hearing in both ears. A tuning fork placed on vertex of skull. Patient indicates in which ear he hears the loudest. In conditions of middle ear deafness it's louder in affected ear
Created by: Owly