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Medical Terminology

Bones of the Skeleton

QuestionAnswer
Name 5 functions of the skeleton with a simple explanation SUPPORT- provides framework for body and gives shape LEVERAGE- provides levers for muscle attachement allowing movement and articulation PROTECTION- protects organs, e.g. brain within the cranium STORAGE- stores calcium salts PRODUCTION- manufactures
What different types of bones are found in the skeleton? LONG BONES- forming limbs and having a cavity SHORT BONES- having no cavity, found in hands and feet FLAT BONES- forming the cranium and scapulat IRREGULAR BONES- face bones and vertabrae SESAMOID BONES- formed in a tendon, e.g. patella and hyoid bone
Name the bones of the cranium ONE OCCIPITAL TWO PARIETAL TWO TEMPORAL ONE FRONTAL ONE SPHENOID ONE ETHMOID
What is the FONTANELLES? The uniting of the cranial bones by SUTURES (fibrous immovable joints) occurs after birth. The bones are not united in the fetus,moulding of the skull to aid delivery is able to occur after childbirth
When does the POSTERIOR FONTANELLE CLOSE? Aprox 3 months
Name the bones of the face ONE MANDIBLE -LOWER JAW TWO MAXILLA - UPPER JAW TWO MALAR OR ZYGOMATIC - CHEEK BONES ONE NASAL- PART OF NOSE ONE VOMER- PART OF NASAL SEPTUM TWO LACRIMAL (LACRYMAL)- BONY ORBIT TWO PALATINE- HARD PLATE IN MOUTH TWO TURBINATE-INSIDE NOSE
Where is the HYOID BONE found? is a small bone attached to the tongue
How many vertabrae are there? 33 irregular bones
Name 5 functions of the VERTABRAE Provides a framework for attachement of other structures Protects the spinal cord and nerves Provides locomotion Absorbs shock Forms strong joints
What is TYPICAL VERTABRAE? Having similar features
What is ATYPICAL VERTABRAE? Not having the typical features
Name the different regions of the vertabral column? CERVICAL- 7 BONES THORACIC- 12 BONES LUMBAR- 5 BONES SACRAL- 5 FUSED BONES COCCYX- 4 FUSED ONES
Name the structures of the RIB CAGE ONE STERNUM 12 PAIRS RIBS 12 THORACIC VERTABRAE
Name the 3 parts of the STERNUM MANUBRIUM BODY XIPHOID
What are the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES used for? INSPIRATION and EXPIRATION
The rib cage is made up of? 7 PAIRS OF TRUE RIBS 5 PAIRS OF FALSE RIBS 2 PAIRS OF FLOATING RIBS
When are joints formed? When 2 or more bony surfaces are attached to eachother
What is a fixed joint? Fibrous tissue where no movement is possible, e.g. sutures of cranium
What is a SLIGHTLY MOVABLE JOINT? CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS -which allow only slight movement e.g. INTERVEREBRAL JOINTS between the bodies of the vertabrae
FREELY MOVABLE JOINTS do what? Allow FREE MOVEMENT according to the shape of the joint
What are SYNOVIAL JOINTS lined with? SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE -which produces SYNOVIAL FLUID (which prevents friction and wear)
What are the ends of these bones (synovial)covered in ? HYALINE CARTILAGE
What is BURSA and where can it be found? A sac lined with synovial membrane containing synovial fluid, found between a TENDON and a BONE in order to prevent friction on movement
What are LIGAMENTS composed of ? Tough fibrous tissue
What do LIGAMENTS DO? They BIND BONE TO BONE
What is a MUSCLE? Strong elastic tissues,with blood, capable of CONTRACTION and RELAXATION. (partly contracted known as MUSCLE TONE)
Name 3 TYPES OF MUSCLE VOLUNTARY (STRAITED) -attached to skeleton and under control of the will INVOLUNTARY (UNSTRAITED) -smooth and controlled automatically by the autonomic system (forming the walls of major organs e.g. stomach CARDIAC - (MYOGENIC) - the HEART - controlled
What is the DIAPHRAM for ? Muscle that divides THORACIC CAVITY from ABDOMINAL CAVITY -essential for RESPIRATION
What are TENDONS? Specialised fibrous bands found at ends of muscles which attach MUSCLE TO BONE or MUSCLE TO MUSCLE
Why does a HERNIA occur? From a weakness in the muscle which allows part of an organ to PROLAPSE through the space created by the weakness
what types of HERNIA are there? INGUINAL HERNIA- common in men FEMORAL HERNIA- weakness in groin - common in women HATIUS HERNIA- weakness in diaphram- part of oesophagus/and/or stomach go through the space UMBILICAL HERNIA-weakness in umbilical area giving intestinal protusion
What is a COMMINUTED FRACTURE? SEVERAL BREAKS IN THE BONE
What is a COMPLICATED FRACTURE? DAMAGE TO VITAL NEIGHBORING STRUCTURES
What is a COMPOUND/OPEN FRACTURE? A BREAK IN THE BONE WHERE THERE IS COMMUNICATION WITH THE OUTSIDE AIR e.g. SKIN
What is a DEPRESSED FRACTURE? FRACTURE OF THE SKULL WITH DEPRESSED SEGMENTS
What is a GREEN STICK FRACTURE? TYPE IN CHIDREN WHRE BONE DOES NOT COMPLETELY BREAK AS IT IS NOT OSSIFIED (hardened)but rather like a green branch of a tree splitting
What is an IMPACTED FRACTURE? WHRE THE ENDS OF THE BONE ARE FORCED INTO ONE ANOTHER
What is an OBLIQUE FRACTURE? A FRACTURE WHERE IT IS NOT DIRECTLY ACROSS THE AXIS OF THE BONE
What is a POTT'S FRACTURE? FRACTURE OF THE ANKLE INVOVLING BOTH THE TIBIA AND FIBULA
What is a TRANSVERSE FRACTURE? A FRACTURE AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE AXIS OF THE BONE
What is an AVULSION FRACTURE? FRAGMENTED BONE AT THE SITE OF A LIGAMENT OR TENDON ATACHEMENT
What is a COLLES' FRACTURE? FRACTURE OF THE WRIST, BOTH THE RADIUS AND ULNA ARE FRACTURED AND CAUSE THE TYPICAL DINNER FORK DEFORMITY
What is a FRACTURE? A BREAK IN THE CONTINUITY OF THE BONE-INCLUDES CRACKS AS WELL AS COMPLETE BREAKS
Created by: Owly