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Green Module

Green Module Musculoskeletal

agonist the muscle(s) that produces the movement
amphiarthrosis slightly moveable joints
antagonist the muscle(s)that relaxes in order to allow a movement
appendicular skeleton consists of bones of the shoulders, hips, upper and lower extremities
arthritis inflammation of the joints
arthrodesis fusion/stabilization or binding of a joint
atlas the first cervical vertebra which supports the skull
axial skeleton consists of the bones of the skull, thorax and vertebral column
axis the second cervical vertebra which provides rotation of the skull
bones principal organs of support and protection in the body
bone marrow found within larger bones; responsible for the production of blood cells
cervical vertebrae the seven vertebrae which form the skeletal framework of the neck
coccyx the tail of the vertebral column consisting of four or five fused vertebrae (tailbone)
compact bone hard, outer layer of bone
condyle rounded, articulating knob
crest a type of bone process that has a large ridge shape
diaphysis the shaft or long main portion of the bone
diarthrosis freely moveable joints
epiphysis the end or extremity of the bone
fascicle a bundle of muscle fibres
femorotibial pertaining to the femur (thigh bone) and the tibia (lower leg bone)
fissure narrow, slit-like opening
flat bones provide abroad surface for muscular attachment and protection for internal organs (pelvic bone)
foramen rounded opening through a bone to accommodate blood vessels and nerves
fracture the breakage of a bone due to trauma or disease
gluteus maximus the large muscle of the buttocks
head prominent, rounded, articulating end of a bone
ilium the lateral flaring portion of the hip bone; upper of the three parts of the hip bone
intervertebral disks round structure with a gelatinous ass in the center that separates the vertebrae
involuntary that which occurs with no discretionary control, usually a visceral muscle (heart action or peristalsis)
irregular bones all other bones that cannot be grouped under other headings (vertebrae)
ischium the lower part of the hip bone
kyphosis an exaggerated outward curvature of the thoracic vertebrae. (hunchback or humpback)
latissimus dorsi the large muscle of the back
ligament band of connective tissue that connects bone to bone
long bones found in extremities of the body (arms, legs and fingers)
lordosis abnormal inward curvature of the spine
lumbar vertebrae the five vertebrae situated in the lower back which carry most of the weight of the torso
meatus opening or passage into a bone
metacarpectomy excision of the bones of the hand
muscles structures that contract providing movement of the bone
muscular tissue refers to all of the contractile tissue of the body, two main types are voluntary and involuntary
musculoskeletal system consists of bones, joints, and muscles, which provide the body with support, protection and the ability to move
myelocele hernia of the spinal cord
osteoclasis to break a bone for therapeutic purposes
osteoblast a cell in the bone marrow that produces bone
osteoclast a cell in the bone marrow that reabsorbs bone
osteoma a bone tumour
osteoporosis bone pores or cavities resulting from a decrease in bone density
paraplegia paralysis of the lower spine and the lower portion of the trunk and both legs
patellapexy surgical fixation of the kneecap
pelimetry measurement of the pelvis
pelvis basin-shaped structure that support the sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder and other soft organs of the abdominopelvic cavity
periosteum a dense fibrous membrane that covers the surface of the bone and contains blood and lymph vessels and nerves
phalangeal pertaining to the bones of the fingers and toes
podiatry foot treatment
pubis the third portion of the hipbone that is situated in front of the bladder
quadriplegia paralysis of the upper spine and all four extremities
ribs a series of twelve pair of curved bones attached to the vertebral column which provides protection for internal organs
sacrum the five sacral vertebrae which are fused into a single bone
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine
short bones bones that are as wide as they are long (ankles, wrists)
sinus cavity or hollow space in a bone
spina bifida a genetic disorder that results in malformation of the spine due to imperfect joining of the vertebrae
sternocleidomastoid a muscle of the chest arising from the sternum and inner part of the clavicle
sternum breast bone / chest plate
substernal pertaining to under the sternum
synarthrosis immovable joints
syndactylism condition of fingers and toes being joined together (webbed)
tendon a strap composed of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone
thoracic vertebrae the 12 vertebrae which support the chest and serve as a point of articulation for the ribs
torticollis stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles
trochanter very large, irregularly shaped process found only on the femur
tubercle small, rounded process
tuberosity large, rounded process
vertebrae the 26 bones which make up the adult vertebral column
voluntary that which is done with control. Usually a striated muscle such as the biceps (walking, blinking)
appendage Any body part attached to a main structure
spondylolisthesis Any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebrae from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
splinting bone immobilization by application of an orthopedic device to the injured body part
casting bone immobilization by application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or similar material
traction bone immobilization by application of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture
talipes equinovarus congential deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called clubfoot
NSAIDs decrease pain and suppress inflammation(nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drugs)
flexion decreases the angle of a joint
bunion (halture valgus) deformity characterized by lateral deviation of the great toe as it turns in toward the second toe, which may cause the tissue surrounding the joine to become swollen and tender
sponylosis degeneration of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues
crepitation dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
hemarthrosis effusion of blood into a joint cavity
dorsiflexion elevates the foot
sequestrectomy excision of a sequestrum
synovectomy excision of a synovial membrane
bursectomy excision of bursa
laminectomy excision of the posterior arch of a vertebrae
contractive fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
ganglion cyst fluid-filled tumour that most commonly develops along the tendons or joints of the wrists of hands, nut may also appear in the feet
podiatry foot treatment
rickets form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called rachitis
sequestrum fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
bone grafting implantation or transplantation of bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
exacerbation increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms; also called flare
extension increases the angle of a joint
claudication lameness, limping
cancellous lattice like arrangement of boney plates occurring at the ends of long bones
cruciate ligaments ligaments that cross each other forming an X within the notch between the femoral condyles
hypotonia loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
plantar flexion lowers the foot (points the toes)
multiple myeloma malignant tumour of plasma cells in the bone marrow
rotation moves a bone around its own axis
abduction moves away from the midline
inversion moves the sole of the foot inward
eversion moves the sole of the foot outward
strain muscular trauma caused by violent contraction or an excessive forcible stretch
(mineral) bone density test noninvasive procedure that uses low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density and usually measures bones of the spine, hip and forearm; also called dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
scintigraphy nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide
(CTS) carpal tunnel syndrome painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel
subluxation partial or incomplete dislocation
amputation partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or circulatory disease
phantom limb perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
articulation place of union between two or more bones, also called joint
reduction procedure that restores a bone to its normal position
bone immobilization procedures used to restrict movement, stabilize and protect a fracture and facilitate the healing process
hematopoiesis production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow
arthocentesis puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
lumbarsacral spinal radiography radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral and oblique views of the lower spine
myelography radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumours, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks or other lesions
discography radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures with injection of a contrast medium
open reduction reduction in which fractured bones place in their proper position during surgery
closed reduction reduction in which fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery
salicylates relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
muscle relaxants relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
prosthesis fitting replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
bone revision sx (symptom) revision surgery are often required to correct bone infection, misalignments of bones, broken prosthesis and fractures of the bone around the prosthesis
intervertebral disks round structure with a gelatinous mass in the center that separates the vertebrae
foramen rounded opening through a bone to accommodate blood vessels and nerves
condyle rounded, articulating knob
herniated disk rupture of a vertebral disk's center through its outer edge and back toward the spinal canal with pressure on the adjacent spinal nerve that results in pain, numbness or weakness in one or both legs
bone scintigraphy scintigraphy procedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone
arthrography series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
tubercle small, rounded process
torticollis stiff neck caused by spasmodic contraction of the neck muscle
ankylosis stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery or abnormal bone fusion
revision surgery surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn out prosthesis
arthroclasia surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
(THR)total hip replacement surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
sprain tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate or complete
calcium supplements treat and prevent hypocalcemia
gold salts treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system
pronation turns the palm dowm
supination turns the palm up
(EMG)electromyocardiogram use of electrical stimulation to diagnose the health of muscles and the nerve cells that control them
arthroscopy visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
adduction moves closer to the midline
Created by: Barbara Ross