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PMI A&P

PMI A&P Questions/Notes

QuestionAnswer
What is the fluid filled sac that surrounds the heart? Pericardium
What are the upper chambers of the heart called? Atria (plural) Atrium (singular)
What are the lower chambers of the heart called? Ventricles
What carries the blood away from the heart? Ateries (A for away)
What carries the deoxygenated blood into or towards the heart? Veins ('in' for veIN)
What connects the arteries to the capillaries? Arterioles
What connects the veins to the capillaries? Venules
What is a normal BP? 120/80
What part of the heart determines the top number of a BP? Atrium
What part of the heart determines the bottom number of a BP? Ventricles
What do the capillaries do? Connect arterioles and venules
What value is the top number of a BP? Systolic
What value is the bottom number of a BP? Diastolic
What does the heart do when determining the systole? Contracts
What does the heart do when determining the diastole? Relaxes
What does the "ic" in systolic and diastolic values mean? Numerical
What is a normal heart rate for adults? 60-100 BPM (beats per minute)
What is the average heart rate for an adult? 72 BPM
What is the brain of a cell? Nucleus
What is another name for the cell membrane? Plasma membrane
What part of the cell house deoxyribonucleic acid? Organelles
What is the free space in a cell where fluid travels? Cytoplasma
How many layers of a vein? 3
What is the outermost layer of a vein called? Tunica Externa (Adventia)
What is the middle layer of a vein called? Tunica Median
What is the innermost layer of a vein called? Tunica Interna (Intima)
What is the hollow space within a hose, needle, straw, or vein where fluid flows? Lumen
What do we as Phlebotomists want to do when sticking a vein? Want to pierce all 3 layers to the lumen
How many components is blood comprised of? 4
What are red blood cells called? Erythrocytes
What are the white blood cells called? Leukocytes
What are the platelets called? Thrombocytes
What is plasma made up of? 90% water 10% protein
What are the layers within a tube of blood? Top: Plasma Middle: Buffycoat Bottom: Blood
What is the buffycoat made up of? Leukocytes and platelets
What purpose does the buffycoat act as? A barrier separating the blood and plasma
What is a fancy word for bruise? Hematoma
What is the most suitable area for venipuncture? Antecubital Fossa
Myocardial Infarction is a fancy word for what? Heart attack
The main difference between arterial and venous blood is what? The amount of oxygen
What component of red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen? Hemoglobin
What body system is responsible for the survival of species? Reproductive
What body system is the immune system? Lymphatic
What body system breaks down food and absorbs nutrients? Digestive
What body system is the pathway for oxygen into the body? Respiratory
What body system is the bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage? Skeletal
What body system controls and coordinates body functions? Nervous
What body system maintains posture and produces heat? Muscular
What body system contains ductless glands that secrete hormones? Endocrine
What body system is the largest organ and regulates body temperature? Integumentary
What body system transports nutrients and wastes to cells? Circulatory - Cardiovascular
What body system filters waste products from blood? Urinary
What are the smallest living unit of a human body? Cell
Which blood type is the universal donor? O-
Which blood type is the universal recipient? AB+
Blood that is in the same form as when it travels throughout the body is what? Whole blood
What is prone position? Laying face down
What is the supine position? Laying face up (remember 'up' is in sUPine)
When the body is standing erect with the arms at the side, palms, face, and head turned facing forward is what position? Anatomical position
What is it called when the body is in a complete balance and equilibrium? Homeostasis
What are the 5 components of a complete blood count (CBC)? Erythrocytes; Leukocytes; Thrombocytes; Hematocrit; Hemoglobin
What are the three parts of the antecubital fossa that as phlebotomists we can go? Median vein; Cephalic vein; Basilic vein
Where does the cephalic vein lay on the arm? Along the thumb side (remember you can make a C with your thumb and index finger)
Where does the basilic vein lay on the arm? Along the pinky finger side
What is the first choice vein we should use? Why? Median; Because it is well anchored, tends to be less painful, not as close to major arteries and nerves, so it is safest
What is the second choice vein we should use? Why? Cephalic; Because it is easily accessible, well anchored, less likely to roll, not close to major arteries and nerves, less painful
What is the third choice vein we should use? Why? Basilic; Because it is more painful and more likely to bruise, closer to major arteries and nerves, doesn't anchor well and rolls easily
Regardless of order of veins, what vein should we use during venipuncture? What FEELS best; best palpate
What cells are most numerous in the blood and main function is to carry oxygen? Erythrocytes
Skeletal, visceral, and cardiac are types of what? Muscles
What elements are first on scene of an injury and are essential in coagulation? Platelets
What is the abbreviation for aspartate aminotransferase? AST
Which blood type is the least common? AB
What is the process that coverts simple compounds into complex substances to carry out cellular activities? Anabolism
What body cavity are the spinal and cranial cavities in? Dorsal
Are the walls of the left ventricles nearly three times as thick as the right ventricle because of the force needed to pump blood inter the arterial system? Yes
What body plane divides the body into right and left portions? Sagittal
What system produces gametes? Reproductive
What is the thick outer layer that is continuous with the lining of the pericardium? Epicardium
GTT, bilirubin, and fecal fat is a diagnostic test for what system? Digestive
What chamber of the heart receives oxygen poor blood from the body? Right atrium
What in the skin gives rise to fingerprints? Papillae
Which body plane divides the body into top and bottom portions? Transverse
What is a major cause of respiratory distress in infant and young children? Respiratory syncytial virus
What body system maintains the electrolyte balance? Urinary
Creatinine clearance is a test for what body system? Urinary
ABGs is a test for what body system? Respiratory
What does "distal" mean? Farthest from the point of attachment
When facing someone in a normal anatomical position, which body plane are you looking at? Frontal
What layers of skin contain blood vessels? Dermis and subcutaneous
What does avascular mean? Without blood vessels
What layer of skin is avascular? Epidermis
What type of tissue covers and lines organs, vessels, and cavities? Epithelial
What is a dangerous condition where the patient's pH decreases? Acidosis
What is the study of the function of the body and its organs called? Physiology
What type of metabolism breaks down complex substances into simple substances? Catabolism
What heart specific hormone is released when there is too much pressure or fluid? B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
What gland is also known as the "master gland?" Pituitary gland
What is a tuft of capillaries located in the kidney that filters the blood for the urinary system? Glomerulus
What is the study of tissues? Histology
What is the study of cells and organelles? Cytology
What is the anterior direction? Facing forward or toward the front
What is the posterior direction? Facing backward or towards the rear
What is the dorsal direction? Posterior, towards the spine
What is the inferior direction? Below
What is the superior direction? Towards the top or above
What are the 2 major body cavities? Dorsal and ventral (frontal)
What cavities are in the dorsal cavity? Cranial (brain) and vertebral (spinal cord)
What cavities are in the ventral cavity? Thoracic (lungs), Pericardial (heart), Abdominal (digestive organs), and Pelvic (bladder, reproductive organs)
What is the sagittal plane? Extends vertical and divides the body into right and left (mid-sagittal - equal R & L portions)
What is the front plane? Extends vertically and dives the body into front and back portions; also known as dorsal and ventral; anterior and posterior
What is the transverse plane? Plane creates a cross section and divides the body into upper and lower sections; horizontal
What does palpate mean? assess by feel or touch
What are we looking for when we palpate? Size of vein; depth of vein; direction of vein
What is the breakdown/destruction of blood? Hemolysis
What are the reasons for hemolysis? (card 1/2) 1) Tourniquet time (1 minute or less) 2) Shaking the tube instead of inverting it 3) Not allowing the antiseptic to dry 4) Pumping/clenching patient's fist
What are the reasons for hemolysis? (card 2/2) 5) Long transport time (15-30 minutes) 6) Excessive heat 7) Wrong size needle used 8) Pushing/pulling too fast on syringe 9) Travel time through butterfly
What is the clumping of erythrocytes? Agglutination
Who won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for blood typing? Karl Landsteiner
What does hemostasis mean? Stoppage of blood after an injury; process of coagulation
Created by: rainie529