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Ancient World:Civilizations & Religions

nomads people who move from place to place in search of food
cultural diffusion the exchange of ideas, customs, goods, and technologies among cultures
Neolithic the period of human culture characterized by the development of a system of settled agriculture; AKA New Stone Age
technology tools and skills people use to meet their basic needs
civilization community characterized by elements such as a system of writing, development of social classes, and cities
polytheistic believing in many gods
pharaoh ruler of ancient Egypt
Fertile Crescent a crescent-shaped region of good farmland created by the Tigris & Euphrates Rivers, stretches from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean, N & E of Egypt
ziggurats pyramid-like structures around which the Summerians built their cities
cuneiform wedge-shaped writing formed by pressing a penlike instrument into clay
empire group of states or territories governed by one ruler
Code of Hammurabi first major set or collection of laws in history; established standards of justice for all classes
Middle Kingdom traditional name for Chinese civilization, so-called because the Chinese believed China was the center of the Earth
dynasty ruling family
Mandate of Heaven according to Chinese tradition, the divine right to rule
feudalism system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military service & other support to a greater lord
Qin Dynasty 221 BC-206 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC-AD 220; golden age in China
Maurya dynasty 321 BC-185 BC; first united empire in India
bureaucracy system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Asoka Chandragupta's grandson; his rule in India united his diverse people & brought peace & prosperity
polis city-state in ancient Greece
aristocracy a government ruled by an upper class
direct democracy system of government in which citizens participate directly rather than through elected representation
Hellenistic type of culture, resulting from Alexander the Great's conquests, that blended eastern & western influences
republic system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
Senate the most powerful governing body of ancient Rome
patricians members of the landholding upper class in ancient Rome
plebians members of the lower class in ancient Rome, which included farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
Pax Romana term meaning "Roman Peace" for a period covering about 200 years beginning with the reign of Augustus
Laws of the Twelve Tables laws of ancient Rome written on twelve tablets & displayed in the marketplace
aqueducts bridge-like stone structures that bring water from hills to cities; first used by ancient Romans
Silk Road ancient trade route that linked China with lands to the west
Wudi most famous of the Han emperors; conducted many military campaigns to secure & expand China's borders
monopoly complete control of a product or business by one person or group
Augustus ruled Roman empire from 31 BC to AD 14; created a civil service system
animism the belief that every living and nonliving thing in nature has a spirit
brahman single unifying spirit of Hindu belief
reincarnation in Hinduism, the rebirth of the soul in a new body
karma in Hinduism, all deeds of a person's life that affect existence in the next life
dharma in Hinduism, the moral & religious duties that are expected of an individual
Upanishads sacred text, philosophical dialogues about Hindu beliefs
Vedas sacred Hindu text; collection of prayers & sacred verses
Buddha Siddhartha Gautama; the Enlightened One
nirvana in Buddhism, union with the universe & release from the cycle of death & rebirth
montheistic believing in one god
Torah the most sacred scriptures of Judaism
Messiah Jewish word for savior sent by God
Bible the sacred scriptures of Christianity
hijra Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622; also spelled hegira
Qur'an the sacred scripture of Islam
Sharia the system of Islamic law
missionaries people dedicated to spreading a religion
diaspora a scattering of people, as when the Jewish people were forced to leave their homeland in Palestine
Created by: fcsdklw