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7th Grade Chapter 3

First Civilizations

Most historians believe that the first advanced form of culture, or _______________, arose in Sumer around 3300 BC. civilization
Fertile soil that is deposited by rivers is called ______________. silt
Sumerians practiced _______________, or a belief in many gods and goddesses. polytheism
The fertile soil deposited in the _______________ was excellent for farming and agriculture. floodplain
Mesopotamia had a ______________ climate with little rainfall and warm temperatures. semiarid
_______________ means "land between two rivers". Mesopotamia
Tools made of _______________ were stronger than those made of copper. bronze
Mesopotamians were able to trade due to a _______________ of grain. surplus
Because of the semiarid climate, the people of Mesopotamia experienced at least one _______________ each year, making farming difficult. drought
The Sumerians used a ______________ to press markings into clay tablets. stylus
_______________ was the wedge-shaped system of writing that was created by the Sumerians. cuneiform
A _______________ was a form of government that included cities and the lands surrounding them. city-state
A _______________ is a person who specialized in writing and record keeping. scribe
The _______________ was the largest and most important building in Sumerian cities. ziggurat
This trait of civilization is a group of people with a specific purpose. Some examples include schools, religion, and army. complex institutions
This trait of civilization started out as a place for store and trade surplus grain. Some examples include Kish, Nippur, and Ur. advanced cities
This trait of civilization is the development of better ways to do things. Some examples include irrigation systems, bronze tools, and the wheel advanced technology
This trait of civilization allowed people to keep track of important information. Some examples included counting sticks, pictographs, and cuneiform. record keeping
This trait of civilization developed because people were able to do work other than farming. Some examples include artisans, priests, kings, and scribes. specialized workers
Mesopotamia was located in this modern-day country. Iraq
A skill in one type of work specialization
The watering of crops irrigation
A group of people with similar customs, backgrounds, training, and income social class
The cultivation of soil to produce useful crops agriculture
something written or created by a person who witnessed a historical event primary source
an account of a historical event that was created by someone who did not witness the event secondary source
the horizontal lines on a map that measure distances north and south of the Equator latitude
the vertical lines on a map that measure distances east and west of the Prime Meridian longitude
0 degrees longitude Prime Meridian
0 degrees latitude Equator
half of a globe or sphere hemisphere
a group of years with some distinctive feature(s) in common age, era, epoch
a human-made object with historical significance artifact
the remains of early life that has been preserved fossil
A ______________ could also be called "picture writing". pictograph
The name for the shift from food gathering to food raising Agricultural Revolution
This is the geographic feature that made Mesopotamia an ideal location for civilization to develop. rivers
These 2 rivers surround Mesopotamia Tigris and Euphrates
Created by: mrsdyer316