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Medical Term 1

Skeletal System Chapter 3 pg 63

QuestionAnswer
Skeletal system includes Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues
Functions of the Skeletal System Support, Protection, Movement
Functions of the Skeletal System Storage of lipids yellow marrow
Functions of the Skeletal System Blood cell production -Hematopoesis (red marrow)
Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) boss/e
Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) oss/i
Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) oste/o
Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) ost/o
Bones are classified by Shape, Internal tissue organization, Bone markings (surface features; marks)
Long bones Are long and thin
Long bones examples Are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes
Flat bones Are thin with parallel surfaces
Flat bones examples Are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae
Sutural bones Are small, irregular bones
Sutural bones examples Are found between the flat bones of the skull
Irregular bones Have complex shapes
Irregular bones Examples spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones
Short bones Are small and thick
Short bones Examples ankle and wrist bones
Sesamoid bones Are small and flat, they do not create a joint
Sesamoid bones Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
Bone Markings Depressions or grooves Along bone surface
Bone Markings Projections Where tendons and ligaments attach At articulations with other bones
Bone Markings Tunnels Where blood and nerves enter bone
Structure of a Long Bone Diaphysis Epiphysis Metaphysis
Diaphysis The shaft A heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone A central space called medullary (marrow) cavity
Epiphysis Wide part at each end Articulation with other bones Mostly spongy (cancellous) bone Covered with compact bone (cortex) Epiphyseal Plate Distal v/s proximal
Metaphysis Where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Epiphyseal Lines When long bone stops growing, after puberty Epiphyseal cartilage disappears Is visible on X-rays as an epiphyseal line
Mature Bones As long bone matures Osteoclasts enlarge medullary (marrow) cavity Osteons form around blood vessels in compact bone
Periosteum Covers outer surfaces of bones
Compact bone Cortical, Matrix
Compact bone Very strong, dense and tough, hard Mineral deposits=Ca salt deposits Osteocytes (bone cells) within lacunae organized around blood vessel
Endosteum membrane that divides Compact bone from Yellow morrow
Spongy bone Honeycomb layer, lighter and slightly flexible
Bone marrow where new cells are constantly being produced for the blood=Hematopoesis In the middle of some bones is jelly-like
Bone tissue is composed of Matrix and the Cells
Minerals: Wo thirds of bone matrix is -calcium phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2 & Other: calcium salts and ions -One third of bone matrix is protein fibers (collagen
Cells : There are four main types of cells. Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoprogenitor cells Osteoclasts: Dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Osteoblasts Immature bone cells that form new bone
Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
Osteoprogenitor cells Stem Cells that create other cells
Osteoclasts Dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Skeletal system includes Bones of the skeleton Cartilages, ligaments, and connective tissues
Functions of the Skeletal System Support Storage of minerals (calcium( Ca)) Storage of lipids (yellow marrow) Blood cell production -Hematopoesis (red marrow) Protection Movement
Related Word Parts (Combining Forms) oss/e, oss/i oste/o, ost/o
Bones are classified by Shape Internal tissue organization Bone markings (surface features; marks)
Long bones Are long and thin Are found in arms, legs, hands, feet, fingers, and toes
Flat bones Are thin with parallel surfaces Are found in the skull, sternum, ribs, and scapulae
Sutural bones Are small, irregular bones Are found between the flat bones of the skull
Irregular bones Have complex shapes
Irregular bones Examples: spinal vertebrae, pelvic bones
Short bones Are small and thick
Short bones Examples: ankle and wrist bones
Sesamoid bones Are small and flat, they do not create a joint Develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, and feet
Bone Markings: Depressions or grooves Along bone surface
Bone Markings: Projections Where tendons and ligaments attach At articulations with other bones
Bone Markings: Tunnels Where blood and nerves enter bone
Structure of a Long Bone: Diaphysis The shaft A heavy wall of compact bone, or dense bone A central space called medullary (marrow) cavity
Structure of a Long Bone: Epiphysis Wide part at each end Articulation with other bones Mostly spongy (cancellous) bone Covered with compact bone (cortex) Epiphyseal Plate Distal v/s proximal
Structure of a Long Bone: Metaphysis Where diaphysis and epiphysis meet
Epiphyseal Lines When long bone stops growing, after puberty Epiphyseal cartilage disappears Is visible on X-rays as an epiphyseal line
Mature Bones As long bone matures Osteoclasts enlarge medullary (marrow) cavity Osteons form around blood vessels in compact bone
Periosteum Covers outer surfaces of bones
Compact bone Cortical, Matrix -Very strong, dense and tough, hard -Mineral deposits=Ca salt deposits -Osteocytes (bone cells) within lacunae organized around blood vessel
Endosteum membrane that divides Compact bone from Yellow morrow
Spongy bone Honeycomb layer, lighter and slightly flexible
Bone marrow -where new cells are constantly being produced for the blood=Hematopoesis -In the middle of some bones is jelly-like
Cells : There are four main types of cells. Osteoblasts, Osteocytes, Osteoprogenitor, Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts: Immature bone cells that form new bone
Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
Osteoprogenitor cells Stem Cells that create other cells
Osteoclasts Dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Skeletal System Procedures Closed reduction Alignment of fracture bones Open reduction Surgical alignment of fractured bones
Closed reduction Alignment of fracture bones
Open reduction Surgical alignment of fractured bones Screws, pins, nails, maintain the alignment
Diagnostic Procedures DEXA Bone density Arthrocentesis Joint problems
Treatment for Talipes Surgery Releases tightness around the joints Breaking and resetting ankle bones Repositions tendons
Talipes Congenital Clubfoot Foot turns inward at the ankle Bottom of foot does not touch flat to the ground or other surface
Congenital Skeletal Conditions Lordosis Scoliosis
Osteoblasts Immature bone cells that form new bone
Osteocytes Mature bone cells that maintain the bone matrix
Osteoprogenitor cells Stem Cells that create other cells
Osteoclasts Dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals (osteolysis)
Bone building osteoblasts
bone recycling osteoclasts
lagunae Osteocytes are housed
Lagunaes -are arranged in concentric lamellae Around a central canal containing blood vessels Perforating Canals: perpendicular to the central canal carry blood vessels into bone and marrow
Lamellae -wrapped around the long bone -Bind osteons together
Created by: 1815104090