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HlTH ch.15

nervous system and psychological disorders

PNS various nerves and nerve masses that connect the brain and spinal cord with receptors muscles and glands
afferent conveys information from the CNS to muscles and glands
efferent conveys information form the receptors to the CNS
neurons conduct impulses either to or from the CNS
neuroglia provide special support and protection
glio neuroglia or a sticky substance
axons are surrounded by ? white lipid covering called a myelin sheath
synaptic bulb releases a chemical neurotransmitter that inhibits or enhances a nervous impulse
acetylcholine muscle contraction
sensory neurons transmit nerve impulses toward the spinal cord and the brain
motor neurons transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord
meninges and circulating cerebrospinal fluid protect brain and spinal cord
sub/dural area between the dura mater and arachnoid
myelo spinal cord (sometimes bone marrow)
cerebrum is concerned with the? interpretation of impulses and all voluntary muscle activities
the two cerebral hemispheres are divided by? a longitudinal fissure
convoluted layer of gray matter cerebral cortex
the lobe deep within the brain insula
sciatic nerve two nerves bound together by a common sheath of connective tissue; largest nerve in the body
intra/thecal within a sheath or the spinal canal
cavities in the brain that produce CSF are called? cerebral ventricles
receptors sensory nerve endings that respond to stimulation
autonomic system is composed of what two divisions? sympathetic and parasympathetic
activation of the sympathetic division causes fight or flight
parasympathetic division counter acts fight or flight
Cholinergenic fibers release? acetylcholine
Adrenergic fibers release epinephrine
chemo/receptors nose and tongue
anosmia loss or impairment of smell
dacryo tear
kerato cornea; hard, horny
iro, irido iris
the eyelids as well as the anterior portion or the sclera are lined with a mucus membrane called? conjunctiva
another name for lacrimal sac is? dacryo/cyst
retina innermost layer of the eye that contains photoreceptors
optic nerve carries nervous impulses to the cerebrum and enables vision
cochlea contain receptors for hearing
semicircular canals sense of balance
-alesia sensitivity to pain
-esthesia sensitivity to pain
-astheina weakness
-lexia words, phrases
paresthesia subjective sensation of numbness and tingling
cluster headaches intense unilateral pain that do not last long
dys/arthria difficult, poorly articulated speech, usually caused by damage to a central or peripheral motor nerve
cerebral vascular accident stroke, insufficient oxygen to the brain tissue caused by hemorrhage, occlusion, vaso spasm or constriction of blood vessels
ischemic strokes inadequate blood flow to brain caused by partial or complete occlusion of a cerebral artery
transient ischemic attack caused by a brief interruption in cerebral blood flow. Symptoms include dizziness, weakness and numbness, disturbance of vision
thrombotic strokes caused by plaque deposits that build up on the interior of a cerebral artery
embolic strokes caused by cerebral embolus, plug of matter (usually blood clot)
diplegia paralysis of similar parts on both sides of the body
bells palsy facial paralysis that affects one side of the face
cerebral palsy motor function disorder caused by permanent non progressive brain defect present at birth
huntington chorea hereditary disorder, symptoms include jerky movements and mental changes
poliomyelitis viral, attacks the gray matter of spinal cord and parts of the brain. Can be prevented by immunization
tetanus toxin that attacks the nervous system and results in muscle rigidity and spasms, AKA lock jaw
morton neuroma benign tumor composed of neurons and fibers that occur in the foot
parkinson disease affects motor ability; muscle rigidity, brady kinesia and tremor
multiple sclerosis myelin sheath deteriorates, replaced with scar tissue that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulse. Characterized by paresthesia
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis aka Lou Gehrig disease. Characterized by atrophy of hands, forearms and legs
my/asthenia gravis defect in the condition of verve impulses at the neuromuscular junction
hordeolum stye, infected sebaceous gland of an eyelash
astigmatism uneven focusing of the image, resulting from distortion of the curvature of the lens or cornea
presby/opia hyperopia and impairment of vision due to advancing years or old age
phreno mind or diaphragm
observable pathologic condition of the brain include? mental retardation, dementia,and alzheimers disease
autism withdrawal and impaired development in social interaction and communication
agoraphobia abnormal fear of public places
arachnohobia abnormal fear of spiders
acrophobia abnormal fear of heights
dissociative disorder separation or spit in personality occurs resulting in altered state of consciousness or confusion in identity
megalo/mania one believes oneself to be a person of great importance
klepto/mania abnormal urge to steal
somatoform disorders symptoms suggesting physical illness or disease, for which there are no demonstrable causes
hypo/chondr/iasis hypochondria, abnormal concern about the health of the body
psychosis major mental disorder characterized by gross impairment in reality testing
schizo/phrenia gross distortion of reality, hallucinations, disturbances of language and communication
burr hole drilled into the skull, used to drain or irrigate an abscess
stereotaxis system of three dimensional coordinates to locate a site to be operated on or irradiated
opioid analgesics act on CNS for pain, morphine and codeine
radial keratotomy reduces or eliminates the need for further correction of myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism. The EXCIMER LASER is used
vago/tomy severing the vagus nerve to reduce the amount of acid secreted in the stomach
Created by: btuehara