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History Final

QuestionAnswer
absolutism form of gov't where one ruler, a monarch, has absolute/total power
Enlightenment 18th century movement of intellectuals who were impressed by the Scientific revolution
philosophers/philosphe intellectuals of the Enlightenment
enlightened monarch monarchs influenced by the Enlightenment, ruled by the enlightenment principals
Thomas Hobbes English philosopher,wrote Leviathan which created foundation for western European political philosophy.
Thomas Hobbes' Ideas the right of the individual; the natural equality of all men; the artificial character of the political order the view that all legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people.
John Locke English philosopher during Enlightenment. Father of Classical Liberalism
John Locke's Idea Tabula rasa; blank state. Life, health, liberty and possessions.
Old Regime/Ancien Regime Monarchy set up by France
Three estates the 3 different levels of society.
1st estate Clergy members; about 0.05%. Didnt have to pay taxes. owned 5-10% of land
2nd estate French nobility; about 2.00%. Didn't have to pay taxes owned 25% of land
3rd estate commoners/; about 97%. Anyone who was not in 1st or 2nd estate(Clergy or nobility)
Estates General assembling of all 3 estates for meeting
bourgeoisie "middle class" of people in France
French Revolution period of radical social and political upheaval in France that dramatically affected France because of the decline of monarchies and churches and the rise of democracy and nationalism
Bastille stormed in during French revolution and used as a symbol for the French republican movement
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen document of French Revolution. defines the natural rights of man to liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression. gave freedom and equality to man.
Liberté, égalité, fraternité Freedom, equality, brotherhood
reign of terror period of violence during the French revolution. mass murder by the guillotine
Robespierre head of Committee of Public Safety
Napoleon Bonaparte leader who took over after Louis XVI
Napoleonic Code code that preserved most of the gains during the revolution
Napoleon's downfall invaded Russia and lost miserably and forced to retreat. He was exiled
congress of Vienna meeting of great powers to arrange a final peace settlemeb
Prince Metternich leader of Congress of Vienna
Conservatism vs. Liberalism Conservatism-based on tradition and social stability Liberalism- people should be as free as possible from gov't restraint
principal of intervention principal adopted by Great Powers that gave them the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore monarchs to power.
Otto Von Bismarck Prussian leader of Germany; worked to keep peace between nations
German Unification Before war with France, the Northern German States merged with Southern German states
textile industry industry fr production of yarn and cloth. the manufacturing of clothes
bourgeoisie vs proletariat bourgeoisie-low class people (factory workers) proletariat-high class people (factory owners)
Laissez-faire idea that the gov't should not be involved in economics
Adam Smith pioneer of political economy
karl marx and friedrich engels writers of The Communist Manifesto
capitalism economic system where trade, industry, etc. are controlled privately
entreprenuer on who takes on the ruisk of starting a business
cottage vs factory system cottage- took a lot of time and all hand made factory system- made by machine an much faster
steam engine key part of Industrial Revolution; allowed factories to be placed where water power wasn't available
James Watt developer of steam engine
Berlin Conference Conference of European powers to decide on imperialism in Africa
social darwinism theory that one race is better than another
British East India Company the original ruler of India
Indian National Congress political party in India
Open Door Policy policy that China had to open trade with the US as a sphere of influence
sphere of influence one country having exclusive control of trade or control in general
Opium War War between Britain and China over opium. Britain wanted to trade opium to citizen but China did not
Tai Ping Rebellion Civil war in Southern China. Led by Hong Xiuquan
100 Days of Reform Failed attempt to modernize China
extraterritoriality Europeans living in sections of China but not being subjected to China's laws but their own
Commodore Matthew Perry Commodore who succeeded Japan on Edo Bay. he brought a letter from President Fillmore that asked to open trade with Japam
Meiji Restoration period of Japanese "Enlightenment" and modernization
colonial rivialry other European powers fighting over colonies
Created by: cutiepie101