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vestibule a chamber that joins the cochlea and semicircular canals
equilibrium a state of balance, controlled by the semicircular canals and the vestibule
eustachian tube a tube which connects the nose and the throat within the cavity of the middle ear
cerumen a waxy secretion produced by the glands of the external ear canal to prevent the entrance of tiny foreign particles
refractive ability to bend light rays as they pass from one medium to another
epiphora abnormal overflow of tears
glaucoma accumulation of aqueous humour in the eye
accommodation adjustment of the eye for various distances so that the images fall on the retina of the eye
cycloplegic agents agents which paralyze ciliary muscles, causing dilation of the pupils
ametropia an error in refraction causing poor focus
retinopathy any disorder of retinal blood vessels
humor any fluid or semifluid of the body
conduction impairment blocking of sound waves as they pass through the external and middle ear
retinitis pigmentosa chronic progressive disease of degeneration of the retina and atrophy of the optic nerve
trachoma chronic, contagious form of conjunctivitis common the southwestern US that typically leads to blindness
acuity clearness or sharpness of a sensory function
anacusis complete deafness; aka anacusia
NIHL noise-induced hearing loss condition caused by the destruction of hair cells, the organs responsible for hearing, caused by sounds that are "too long, too loud or too close"
strabismus condition in which one eye is misaligned with the other or out of synchrony
ophthalmic decongestants constrict the small arterioles of the eye, decreasing redness and relieving conjunctival congestion
otoplasty corrective surgery for a deformed or excessively large or small pinna (ear)
blepharoplasty cosmetic surgery tat removes the fatty tissue above and below the eyes that commonly form as a result of the aging process or excessive exposure to the sun
dacryocystorhinostomy creation of an opening into the nose for draining of tears
antiglaucoma agents decrease aqueous humor production by constricting the pupil to open the angle between the iris and cornea
astigmatism defective curvature of the cornea or lens
corectasis dilations of the pupil
otophyorrhea discharge of puss from the ear
meniere disease disorder of the labyrinth that leads to progressive loss of hearing
diabetic rentinopathy disorder that occurs in patients with diabetes and is manifested by small hemorrhages, edema, and formation of new vessels on the retina, leading to scarring and eventual loss of vision
mydriatics disrupt parasympathetic nerve supply to the eye or stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, causing the pupil to dilate
otalgia ear pain
fluorescein angiography evaluation of blood vessels and their leakage in and beneath the retina after injection of fluorescein dye, which circulates while photographs of the vessels within the eye are obtained
tonometry evaluation of the intraocular pressure by measuring the resistance of the eyeball to indentation by an applied force
retinoscopy evaluation of refractive errors of the eye by projecting a light into the eyes and determining the movement of reflected light rays
tuning fork test evaluation of sound conduction using a vibrating tuning fork
ectropion eversion or outward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
gonioscopy examination of the angle of the anterior chamber of the eye to determine ocular mobility and rotation and diagnose and manage glaucoma
iridectomy excision of the iris
hyperopia farsightedness
dacryorrhea flow of tears
perilymph fluid that very closely resembles spinal fluid but found in the cochlea
ear irrigation flushing of the ear canal with water or saline to dislodge foreign bodies or impacted cerumen
cyclodialysis formation of an opening between the anterior chamber and the suprachoroidal space for the draining of aqueous humor in glaucoma
otosclerosis hardening of the spongy bone around the oval window of the ear, causing hearing loss
audition hearing
nyctalopia impaired vision in dim light; also called night blindness
presbyacusis impairment of hearing resulting from old age; also called presbyacusia
radial keratotomy (RK) incision of the cornea for treatment of nearsightedness or astigmatism
otitis externa infection of the external auditory canal
conjunctivitis inflammation of the conjunctiva with vascular congestion, producing a red or pink eye and may be secondary to allergy or viral, bacterial, or fungal infections
eustachitis inflammation of the eustachian tube
labyrinthitis inflammation of the inner ear that usually results from an acute febrile (fever with a seizure) process
iritis inflammation of the iris
otitis media inflammation of the middle ear
aphthalmic antibiotics inhibit growth of microorganisms that infect the eye
pressure-equalizing (PE) tube insertion of tubes through the tympanic membrane, commonly used to treat chronic otitis media; also called tympanostomy tubes
entropion inversion or inward turning of the edge of the lower eyelid
esotropia inward turning of the eye(s)
tunic layer or coat of tissue; also called membrane layer
amblyopia lazy eye syndrome
photopigment light-sensitive pigment in the retinal cones and rods that absorbs light and initiates the visual process; also called visual pigment
hordeolum localized, circumscribed, inflammatory swelling of one of the several sebaceous glands of the eyelid, generally caused by a bacterial infection; also called a stye
wax emulsifiers loosen and help remove impacted cerumen
presbyopia loss of accommodation of the crystalline lens associated with the aging process
asnosmia loss of sense of smell
audiometry measurement of hearing acuity at various sound wave frequencies
ophthalmodynamometry measurement of the blood pressure of the retinal vessels
electronystagmography (ENG) method of assessing and recording eye movements by measuring by measuring the electrical activity of the extraocular muscles
phacoemulsification method of treating cataracts by using ultrasonic waves to disintegrate a cloudy lens, which is then aspirated and removed
ciliary muscles muscles which relax or contract to alter the shape of the lens, making it thicker or thinner, thus enabling the light rays to foucs upon the retina
mastoid process one of the temporal bones which encloses the sinuses
stapes one of the three bones of the middle ear, shaped like stirrups
malleus one of the 3 bones of the middle ear, shaped like a hammer
incus one of the 3 bones of the middle ear, shaped like an anvil
semicircular canals one of the 3 structures of the inner ear; responsible for balance
optometrist one who specializes in eye measurements
cataracts opacities on the lens or the capsule that encloses the lens, causing loss of vision
exotropia outward turning of the eye(s)
opthalmoplegia paralysis of the eye
visual acuity (VA) part of an eye examination that determines the smallest letters that can be read on a standardized chart at a distance of 20 feet
tinnitus perception of ringing, hissing, or other sounds in the ears or head when no external sound is present
lacrimal pertaining to tear
olfactory pertaining to smell
cochlear implant insertion placement of an artificial hearing device that produces hearing sensations by electrically stimulating nerves inside the inner ear; also called bionic ear
pneumatic otoscopy procedure that assesses the ability of the tympanic membrane to move in response to a change in air pressure
blepharoptosis prolapse of the eyelid
otic analgesics provide temporary relief from pain and inflammation associated with otic disorders
dacryocystography radiographic imaging prodedures
tympanoplasty reconstruction of the eardrum, commonly due to perforation; also called myringoplasty
evisceration removal of the contents of the eye while leaving the sclera and cornea intact
enucleation removal of the eyeball from the orbit
vertigo sensation of a spinning motion either of oneself or of the surroundings
labyrinthitis series of intricate communicating passages
achronatopsia severe congenital deficiency in colour perception; also called complete colour blindness
ear canal slender tube lined with glands, through which sound waves travel to the middle ear
chalazion small, hard tumour developing on the eyelid, somewhat similar to a sebaceous cyst
cochlea snail-shaped inner ear structure
ophthalmic moisturizers soothe dry eyes due to environmental irritants and allergens
slit-lamp examination (SLE) stereoscopic magnified view of the anterior eye structures in detail, which includes the cornea, lens, iris, sclera, and vitreous humor
opague substance or surface that neither transmits nor allows the passage of light
sclerostomy surgical formation of an opening in the sclera
mastoid antrotomy surgical opening of a cavity within the mastoid process
keratocentesis surgical puncture of the cornea
papilledema swelling and hyperemia of the optic disc, usually assocated with increased intracranial pressure; also called choked disc
gustation taste
caloric stimulation test test that uses a different water temperatures to assess the vestibular portion of the nerve nerve of the inner ear to determine if nerve damage is the cause of the vertigo
cornea the clear, transparent portion of the sclera, anterior to the lens
sclera the white of the eye, composed of a tough, fibrous tissue which serves as a protective shield for the more sensitive structures underneath
ossicles three tiny articulating bones in the middle ear
hairs of Corti tiny nerve ending within the cochlea which combine with cochlear fluid to generate nerve impulses to the brain via the auditory nerve
adnexa tissues or structures in the body adjacent to or near related structure
antiemetics treat and prevent nausea, vomiting, dissiness, and vertigo by reducing the sensitivity of the inner ear to motion or inhibiting stimuli from reaching the part of the brain that triggers nausea and vomiting
weber tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction of sound in both ears at the same time
rinne (test) tuning fork test that evaluates bone conduction versus air conduction of sound
nystagmus type of involuntary eye movements that appear jerky and may reduce vision or be associated with other, more serious conditions that limit vision
photophobia unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light
intracapsular extraction use to cold metal probe to remove cataracts
metamorphopsia visual distortion of objects
otoscopy visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope
aphthalmoscopy visual examiniation of the interior of the eye using a hand-held instrument called an ophthalmoscope, which has various adjustable lenses for magnification and a light source to illuminate the interior of the eye
Created by: deyoht_kwa