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Key People

Names that you should know for the Global History Regents

Hammurabi From Mesopotamia (Babylon). Created the first written law code. The code treated people differently according to social class. "An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth". Harsh consequences.
Asoka Leader of Mauryan Empire (in India). Buddhism. Brought peace and prosperity.
Alexander the Great Conquered a lot of land and spread Greek ideas. Hellenistic culture (combining Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian life). Advances in math.
Augustus Leader of Roman Empire during the Pax Romana
Buddha Four Noble Truths: All life is suffering which is caused by desire and therefore to not suffer, you can't desire. Follow Eightfold Path to reach Nirvana/Enlightenment.
Confucius Analects (book). Filial piety/ Five relationships where respect is shown to the superior. Education=important to advance.
Muhammad A prophet who taught Islam. Follow Five Pillars. Read Koran.
Justinian Autocratic ruler of Byzantine Empire. Law code based on Rome's 12 Tables. Kept Greek and Roman culture.
Charlemagne King of the Franks. Created a united Christian Europe.
Pope Urban II Led the first crusades to take back the Holy land of Palestine from Muslim Turks. Council of Clermont.
Saladin Led the Muslims to fight off Christians during Crusades and WON. Forbade any harshness towards Christians after the fight.
Genghis Khan Mongol Leader w/ strong army. Took over India, Persia, and parts of China.
Kublai Khan Mongol Leader. Grandson of the one who conquered China and named it the Yuan Dynasty.
Marco Polo Italian merchant. Wrote about China during the Yuan Dynasty. Europeans saw interest in Chinese goods. He caused trade increase.
Ibn Battuta Writings raised interest in Asia and increased trade.
Zheng He Admiral during Ming dynasty. Promoted trade with China.
Michelangelo Renaissance artist. Painted ceiling of Sistine Chapel and the statue of David. Humanism.
Leonardo Da Vinci Renaissance artist. Painted the Mona Lisa. Sketched flying machines and submarines. Humanism.
Niccolo Machiavelli "The Prince" early 1500s. "The end justifies the means". "It is better to be feared than to be loved".
Johann Gutenberg Created printing press. Made copies of the Bible.
Martin Luther German monk who was against indulgences sold by the Roman Catholic Church. Wrote 95 Theses. Started Protestant Reformation. Developed Lutheranism. Weakened the Catholic Church unity.
John Calvin In Protestant Reformation. Taught predestination. Created Calvinism (God has already decided who goes to heaven or hell). Weakened Catholic Church Unity.
Henry VII Created the Church of England during Protestant Reformation because the Catholic church wouldn't let him have a divorce. Act of Supremacy: He was the head of the Anglican Church of England. Weakened the Church's unity.
Mansa Musa Leader of Mali (in Africa). Spread Islam to North Africa. Gold and salt trade. Center of Muslim learning in Timbuktu.
Suleiman Leader of Ottoman Empire (1520-1566)during a golden age. Muslim. Based his law on Sharia. Stable government and powerful military.
Vasco Da Gama Portuguese explorer who traveled around Africa and the Indian ocean to an Indian port. Opened all water trade route to Asia for Portuguese.
Ferdinand Magellan First to circumnavigate the globe. Claimed the Philippines.
Hernan Cortes Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas.
Philip II Absolute monarch of Spain by divine right who led a golden age.
Louis XIV aka "Sun King" Absolute monarch of France. Created Versailles. Attacked French Protestants. A powerful army.
Ivan IV aka Ivan the Terrible Extreme absolute power over Russia. Secret police.
Peter the Great King of Russia (1682-1725). Gained control of the Russian Orthodox Church. Westernized Russia. Made capital @ St. Petersburg. Expanded to gain ports on Black Sea.
Nicolaus Copernicus Sci Revolution. Explained Heliocentric theory=sun is the center of the universe. Went against Catholic Church.
Galileo Sci Revolution. Argued Heliocentric theory=sun is the center of the universe. On trial for heresy by Catholic church.
Rene Descartes Sci Revolution. Scientific Method.
John Locke Enlightenment. All people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property and the government should protect the rights.
Voltaire Enlightenment. Freedom of speech. Wrote Candide.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Enlightenment. Society corrupted people. People should give up their interests. Social contract=book.
Montesquieu Enlightenment. Government power should be divided into 3 separate branches.
Maximilien Robespierre Revolutionary in the French Revolution. Led the Reign of Terror. Many executed.
Napoleon Bonaparte Took over France after Reign of Terror. Napoleonic Code. Conquered much of Europe (1804-1814). Increased nationalism. Not able to take over Russia because of the cold climate.
Toussaint L'Ouverture Latin American Independence fighter. Fought for French colony of Haiti.
Simon Bolivar Latin American Independence fighter. Fought for the colonies from Spain. Inspired by French and American Revolutions.
Jose de San Martin Latin American Independence fighter. Won independence for areas in South America from Spain (Venezuela). Inspired by French and American Revolutions.
Count Camillio Cavour Helped to unify Italy.
Giuseppe Garibaldi Used nationalism in the unification of Italy.
Otto Van Bismarck Used nationalism and "blood and iron" to unite Germany.
Adam Smith Created Laissez-Faire Capitalism. Individuals could create private businesses and their own profits. Wrote The Wealth of Nations.
Karl Marx Wrote the Communist Manifesto. The Proletariat (working class) would overthrow the business owners so that the power would be shared equally among the working class.
Matthew Perry Brought ships to Japan in 1854 and made Japan sign the Treaty of Kanagawa. It opened up trade btwn US and other western nations. Led to modernization during Meiji Restoration.
Sun Yat-sen Chinese nationalist leader after Qin Dynasty. Wanted to end foreign domination and create a more representative government.
Louis Pasteur Germ theory. Developed pasteurization to kill germs and prevent disease.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand Heir to Austrian throne but was assassinated. Set off the "powder keg" of the Balkans and caused WWI.
V.I Lenin Led Bolsheviks in the Russian Revolution of 1917. "Peace, Land, and Bread". Led to the USSR.
Joseph Stalin Communist totalitarian leader of USSR. Five Year Plans. Collective farms. Great Purge. Starvation of Kulaks in Ukraine could be a genocide.
Kemal Ataturk Turkish nationalist leader who encouraged western culture.
Reza Khan (Pahlavi) Nationalist leader of Iran who tried to westernize. He was overthrown in 1979 by Ayatollah Khomeini.
Mohandas Gandhi Nationalist leader in India. Non-violence resistance=civil disobedience. Boycotting and protests like Salt March and homespun movement to gain independence from British. Wanted Hindus and Muslims to get along.
Benito Mussolini Fascist leader of Italy during WWII.
Adolf Hitler Leader of Germany. Began WWII by invading Poland. "Final Solution"= genocides of the Jewish. Unsuccessful invasion of Stalingrad because of Russia's climate and size.
Winston Churchill Leader of Britain during WWII.
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kaishek) Nationalist leader of China who fought Mao Zedong and communists. Forced to flee in a 6,000 mile Long March. Defeated by the communists and was forced to flee Taiwan.
Mao Zedong Communist leader of China. Supported by peasants. Great Leap Forward with communes but failed. Cultural Revolution=attacked political opponents.
Deng Xiaoping Led China after Mao Zedong. Capitalist free-market ideas to China. Four Modernizations (agriculture, industry, technology, and military).
Jawaharla Nehru First prime minister of India after it gained independence.
Kwame Nkrumah Nationalist leader who was nonviolent to gain independence of the Gold Coast in Africa (Ghana after it worked). Fought to end colonialism in Africa with African Unity organization.
Jomo Kenyatta Nationalist leader who fought for independence of Kenya from Britain. Mau Mau=extremist group. First prime minister of the independent Kenya.
Nelson Mandela A part of the African National Congress. Fought to end segregation called Apartheid in South Africa by nonviolent protests. Imprisoned by became President of South Africa. Brought democratic ideas.
Desmond Tutu Fought to end apartheid in South Africa. Wanted to stop trade and investing with South Africa until they ended Apartheid.
Ho Chi Minh Leader of Vietnam who fought for independence from France. Leader of Communist north Vietnam in the Vietnam War.
Pol Pot Led a genocide of the Cambodian people. Army=Khmer Rouge.
Yassar Arafat Leader of Palestinian Liberation Organization who wanted Jewish Israelis to leave the land that belonged to Muslim Palestinians. Signed Oslo Peace Accords but violence remains.
Yitzhak Rabin Prime Minister of Jewish nation of Israel. Signed Oslo Peace Accords with Yassar Arafat.
Ayatollah Khomeini Islamic who led the Iranian Revolution in 1979. Turned Iran into a strict Islamic state and overthrew Shah Reza Pahlavi.
Saddam Hussein Totalitarian leader of Iraq involved in Iran-Iraq war, the Persian Gulf War, and the beginning of the war in Iraq. Killed the Kurds in Iraq.
Mikhail Gorbachev Leader of USSR who helped lessen cold war tensions. Policy of Glasnost allowed more freedom of speech and democratic rights. Perestroika allowed capitalist, free market ideas. Led to the collapse of the USSR and the end of Communism.
Vladimir Putin Took over Russia after Boris Yeltsin. Signed nuclear arms reduction treaty with US. Cooperation with NATO.
Lech Walesa Led solidarity in Poland (trade union). President of Poland in 1989.
Fidel Castro Communist leader of Cuba (1959) who overthrew Fulgencio Batista. Supported by the USSR in Cold War. Cuban Missile Crisis. Suffered after the USSR's collapse in 1991.
Sandinistas Communist group that took over Nicaragua. US wanted to contain communism so they supported the Contras to fight the Sandinistas which led to civil war.
Slobodan Milosevic President of Yugoslavia. Violence to stop nonserbs from breaking away. Troops against Albanians. Tried to eliminate Muslim Kosovars. Charged with genocide.
Created by: jasmine.ib