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anthropology 300

chapter 1

TermDefinition
Anthropology The study of humankind and the human condition
Biology Those aspects of the human condition influenced by genes and genetic makeup.
Culture Learned, shared knowledge of meanings by which we interpret experience and generate behavior.
Worldview A way of seeing and understanding the world around us, and the place of humans in that world that is shared by members of a society. General cultural orientation or perspective shared by members of a society.
Biocultural The mutual, interactive nature of human biology and human culture: our biology makes our culture possible and our culture influences the direction of our biological evolution
Primates members of the order of mammals Primates (pronounced “pry-may´-tees”), which includes prosimians, monkeys, apes, and humans
Holistic approach the human condition is not a single entity, its a system made up of cultural and biological parts that interact and affect each other. It can only be understood through examination of the parts, their interactions, and the affects they have on each other.
Cultural anthropology The study of human culture and behavior.
Linguistic Anthropology the study of human speech and language.
Archaeology The study of patterns of human behavior and culture through the recovery, analysis, and interpretation of material culture (artifacts, features, etc.) in the archaeological context.
Physical anthropology Study of human biology within an evolutionary framework, including evolutionary change through time, and variation between and within modern populations
Ethnocentrism Viewing another way of life from one's own perspective (worldview). Typically leads to value judgments in which one's own way of life is seen as desirable and proper while the other is seen as inferior or wrong.
Relativistic approach The idea that the beliefs or behaviors of others should not be judged through comparison with one’s own culture, and should not be examined in isolation, but should always be viewed within the cultural context of which they are a part.
Science which we gain understanding about the natural world, and a body of knowledge gained through that process
Scientific method A research method used in the study of natural phenomena and the natural world. Involves observation of phenomena, development of explanations of observations (hypotheses), and testing of hypotheses (experimentation and data collection).
Hypothesis A provisional or tentative explanation of a natural phenomenon. It must be a statement that is testable and falsifiable
Data (Singular: datum) Scientific facts that can be analyzed and from which conclusions can be drawn.
Theory a framework, typically made up of a set of interrelated hypotheses, within which observations are explained and predictions are made. A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been partially verified through testing.
Created by: bonnie_cp