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HlTH ch. 9

respiratory system

apico apex
broncho bronchi
bronchio bronchi
bronchiolo bronchioles
lobo lobe
phreno diaphragm or mind
phono voice
spiro to breathe
-ation process
-capnia carbon dioxide
pnea breathing
ptysis splitting
nares nostrils
nasal septum hollow interior of nose that is separated into right and left cavities
auditory tube aka eustachian tube, narrow channel connecting the middle ear and the nasopharynx
glottis vocal apparatus of the larynx
epiglottis lid-like structure composed of cartilage and covers the larynx when swallowing food
vocal cords aka vocal folds, pair of strong bands of elastic tissue with a mouth-like opening through which air passes, creating sound
bronchi lined with cilia that propel mucous up and away from the lower airway, branch to become bronchioles
bronchioles structures that lead to alveolar ducts
alveoli small pockets where carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged between inspired air and capillary blood
endotracheal within the trachea
mediastinum middle portion of the thoracic cavity between the two lungs
hilum depression where blood vessels enter and leave the lung
pleura membrane that surrounds the lungs
visceral pleura covers lung surface, surrounds the lung
parietal pleura lines the WALLs of thoracic cavity
pleural cavity contains thin film of pleural fluid that acts as a lubricant as the lungs expand and contract during respiration
diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities, DIAPHRAGMA
bronchogram film obtained by bronchography
spirometry measurement of air take into and expelled from the lungs
pulse oximeter photoelectric device for determining the oxygen saturation of the blood in a pulsating capillary bed
rhonchus abnormal rumbling sound that clears on coughing
wheeze musical noise that sounds like a squeak
crackles discontinuous bubbling noises during inspiration that are not cleared by coughing
friction rub dry, grating sound. May be a sign of lung disease
stridor high pitched musical sound caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx, most often heard during inspiration
phlegm thick mucus secreted by the membranes of the respiratory passages
sputum is phlegm or other material that is coughed up from lungs
thromboembolic pertains to the obstruction of a blood vesse with material from a blood clot
apnea absence of spontaneous breathing
cheyne-stokes respiration alternating periods of apnea and deep rapid breathing, occurring more frequently during sleep
asphyxia/asphyxiation condition caused by insufficient oxygen intake
hyperpnea exaggerated deep, rapid or labored respiration, occurs normally during exercise
hyperventilation excessive aeration of the lungs, commonly reduces carbon dioxide levels
ph below 7.0 acidic
ph above 7.0 alkaline
acidemia arterial blood ph below 7.35
alkalemia blood ph above 7.45
orthopnea breathing is difficult except in an upright position
tachypnea breathing rate of 25 breaths per minute at rest
influenza highly contagious disease, characterized by fever, respiratory symptoms muscle aches and weakness
pigeon chest congenital structural defect characterized by prominent sternal protrusion
funnel chest indentation of the lower sternum
barrel chest large rounded thorax
anthraco coal
atelo imperfect or incomplete
conio dust
meta change; next, as in series
-ptysis spitting
asthma recurring episodes of paroxysmal wheezing and dyspnea, constriction of the bronchi, coughing and viscous bronchial secretions
paroxysmal sudden recurrence or intensity of symptoms
pneumonia or pneumonitis inflammation of the lungs from bacteria or fungus
pleural effusion collection of non purulent fluid in the pleural
non purulent not containing pus
pyothorax or empyema pleural effusion contains pus
pulmonary fibrosis fibrous condition of the connective tissue of the lungs, resulting from the formation of scar tissue
hemothorax accumulation of blood and fluid in the pleural cavity
pneumothorax air or gas in the pleural cavity, leads to collapse of the lung
pleurisy aka pleuritis
pleuropneumonia inflammation of both the pleura and lungs
pleural adhesions pleural membranes stick together or on to the wall of the chest and produce pain on movement or breathing
pulmonary edema accumulation of extravascular fluid in lung
congestive heart failure work demanded of the heart is greater than its ability to perform; can result in a lung disorder pulmonary edema
embolus blockage or obstruction
pneumoconiosis any disease of the lung caused by chronic inhalation of dust
mesothelium layer of epithelial cells that cover the pleura and the peritoneum
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, aka chronic obstructive lung disease. Progressive and irreversible respiratory problems in which dyspnea and chronic cough are prominent
emphysema overinflation and destructive changes in alveolar walls
cystic fibrosis inherited disorder of the exocrine glands, involves lungs, pancreas and sweat glands.
atelectasis abnormal condition characterized by the collapse of all or part of a lung
sinusitis inflammation of one or more paranasal sinuses
rhinitis inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose. Acute rhinitis aka coryza
epistaxis nose bleed
dysphasia impairment of speech, lack of coordination and an inability to arrange words in their proper order
aphonia inability to produce normal speech sounds, resulting from overuse of the vocal cords or anxiety
dysphonia hoarseness or abnormality in the speaking voice that may precede aphonia
pharyngomycosis a fungal infection of the pharynx
rhinitis inflammation of the nasal membranes
diphtheria and pertussis acute contagious respiratory diseases. Cased by pathogenic bactieria
pertussis whooping cough
corona virus severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Characterized by fever body aches and mild respiratory symptoms
expectorate cough up and spit out
bronchiolectasis dilation of the bronchioles
bronchiolitis inflammation of the bronchioles
bronchitis inflammation fo the bronchi
tracheostenosis narrowing of the lumen of the trachea
heimlich maneuver method of dislodging food or other obstruction from windpipe
tracheostomy surgical creation of an opening in the trachea
stoma general term for a mouth-like opening
nasal cannulae small tubes inserted into the nares
tracheostomy tube used for prolonged airway management
endotracheal intubation air way catheter inserted through the mouth or nose
orotracheal intubation and nasotracheal intubation insertion of a tube through the mouth or nose into the trachea
extracorporeal membrane oxygenator device used in a hospital to provide respiratory support by circulating the blood through an artificial lung
thoracoplasty surgical procedure that involves removing ribs and allowing the chest wall to collapse a lung
continuous positive airway pressure ventilation nonsurgical method to prevent airway collapse
pulmonologist physician specializing in evaluating and treating lung disorders
nebulizers used to administer medications that are inhaled
bronchodilators medications used in asthma and other respiratory conditions that constrict the airways
decongestants cause vasoconstriction of the nasal membranes, eliminating or reducing welling or congestion
antitussive against coughing
Created by: btuehara