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Final Review

TermDefinition
Old Stone Age Period of time before agriculture, overlaps with prehistory People lived as nomads, wandering in search of food
New Stone Age Began with people ;earned to farm Led to the development of settles villages, a more stable food supply, increased population, and the domestication of animals
Fertile Crescent Known as the "Crossroads of the World" No barriers to invasion, causing frequent wars Lack of barriers also allowed for cultural diffusion as many groups of people migrated and settled here
Nile River Floods predictably Worshiped by ancient Egyptians Provided a source of water that made agriculture possible
Israelites Lived in the ancient Middle East First people to be monotheistic
Mandate of Heaven From ancient China, the ruler received power from the gods Subjects could rebel if ruler failed to provide good government
Hammurabi's Code First written code of laws Based on the principle "an eye for eye" Used harsh punishments and treated people based on social class 
Peloponnesian Wars
Democracy in Athens
Greek Sculpture
Greek Philosophy Used reason and logic to understand the universe Influenced Western civilization with their ideas
Parthenon Temple built in Athens Shows important elements of Greek architecture such as balance and simplicity
Alexander the Great Conquered a large empire the included the Greek city-states After his death the empire collapsed but Greek culture spread
Greek Geography Mountains caused isolation and the development of independent city-states
Oligarchy Form of government where power is in the hand of a small number of people The city-state of Sparta had this type government
Herodotus Wrote the first history, A History of the Persian Wars
Thucydides Improved on Herodotus' methods and wrote A History of the Peloponnesian Wars
Persian Wars Took place before the Peloponnesian Wars The Greeks were outnumbered by the Persians but defeated them The wars were won by the Greeks largely because of the Athenian naval victory at Salamis
Aristotle Greek philosopher who was taught by Plato He was the teacher of Alexander the Great He established a school called the Lyceum
Plato Greek philosopher who was taught by Socrates He set up a school called the Academy 
Cultural Influences on Rome The Romans copied aspects of Greek culture and adapted them
City of Rome The city looked wealthy and impressive but living conditions for most Romans were miserable
Caesar Became dictator of Rome and extended citizenship to people in the provinces of Rome His assassination marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Republic
Augustus First Roman emperor who came to power after a civil war following Caesar's assassination
Persecution of Christians Some Roman Emperors persecuted Christians because they were seen as bad citizens for refusing to worship the emperor and state gods
Roman Law Rome's first code of laws was the Twelve Tables of Law Roman law was based on idea that an individual is innocent until proven guilty
Punic Wars Series of three wars between Rome and Carthage, a city-state in North Africa Rome won all three wars and established a pattern of responding to threats with increasing levels of force
Roman Art and Architecture Copied Greek styles Was realistic and practical
Spread of Christianity Christianity spread because its message was appealing to many people, especially the poor The persecution of Christians by some emperors inspired new converts Christianity offered a personal relationship with God
Diocletian Divided the Roman Empire to try to solve its problems Used policies of coercion and control to try to keep the Empire together
Constantine Like Diocletian, used coercion and control to keep Rome together
Visigoths Attacked the city of Rome 410 AD, the first time the city itself was attacked
Fall of Rome caused by political, economic, and social problems that included a plague, invasions, and the division of the empire into an eastern and western half
Fall of Byzantine Empire The rise of Isla threatened the Byzantine Empire Muslims attack because caused the emperor to request help from the pope leading the Crusades Sped up by the Fourth Crusade which resulted which resulted in the looting of Constantinople The empire collap
Early Middle Ages/Dark Ages Trade came to a stop Population decreased Kings were weak Frequent wars and invasions
Treaty of Verdun Divided Charlemagne's empire among his heir
Created by: bm0724