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Final Review

Who was eligible to be an “active” voting citizen to help choose the delegates that created the Constitution of 1791? 25 years of age/paid a certain amount of taxes
What was the promise made by the National Assembly when they took the Tennis Court Oath? Swore they would continue to meeting until they had a new constitution
Which estate was the only estate expected to pay the taille (tax) prior to the revolution? 3rd Estate
The Constitution of 1791 gave what group the power to make laws? Legislative Assembly
Concerning gender, what group in France WAS NOT protected by the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen? Women (no political rights)
What ruling body did Napoleon’s coup d’état overthrow? _______________ Directory
Give two major reasons for the collapse of Napoleon’s Grand Army. Inability to defeat Great Britain/the force of Nationalism
What was Napoleon’s most important legal code? Civil Code: equality of all citizens before the law; the right of the individual to choose a profession; religious toleration; abolition of serfdom and all feudal obligations
In Napoleon’s new government, what was a promotion based on? Upon their ability, not rank or birth
What was Napoleon’s major military mistake in 1812? Followed the Russian army to Moscow; City had no supplies for his army; Headed back to Poland “The Great Retreat” – many soldier lost their lives due to starvation and freezing – Let France vulnerable to attack from other countries
Napoleon’s successes were? Military genius/Civil Code/Nationalism
The start of the Industrial Revolution began in what European nation? Great Britain
What was the first major industry effected by the Industrial Revolution? Cotton/Textile
What new labor system did the factory produce? Work shifts: it kept the factories productive at all times
Consequence of new labor system? Working long hours/repetitive work
What two new social classes were created by the Industrial Revolution? Middle class and working class
Conditions were so bad for workers in the early industrialization period that a new political idea came about hoping to spread the wealth of society to as many people as possible. What was this new political force? Socialism
The principle of intervention gave the powers of Europe what right? Great powers had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to their throne
Describe what is meant by realpolitik? Politics based on practical matters rather than on the theory or ethics
Karl Marx gave what name to the industrial working class? Proletariat
Name the four commodities that led the way for the Second Industrial Revolution? Steel/chemicals/electricity/petroleum
What was one way that British rule did not hurt the people of India? Religiously
Peasants in India working for foreign-owned farms faced bad working con-conditions, poverty level wages, and high taxes—what is one thing they did not share with the owners of the factories? Share of profits
Describe what is meant by the “white-man’s burden”: Belief that Europeans had a moral responsibility to civilize primitive peoples
The Boers of South Africa were descended from what European ethnic group? The original Dutch settlers of Cape Town and surrounding areas
What was the main outcome of the Berlin (West Africa) Conference of 1884-85? European powers carved Africa into colonies
Was the promotion of Indian troops over British troops one of the reasons for the Sepoy Mutiny? No it was not
Of the following countries, U.S/England/Germany/France, which did NOT have a ‘sphere of influence’ in China by the late 1800’s? United States
There were many reasons for European Imperialism. Was one of them that Europe was hoping to share their new technology with the people they were conquering? NO it was not
30. Of the following, militarism/nationalism/ communism/imperialism, which was not a cause for WWI: Communism
At the outbreak, who were members of the Triple Entente? Great Britain, France, Russia
At the outbreak, who were members of the Triple Alliance? Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy
What type of fighting developed on the Western Front? Trench Warfare
What is meant by “total war”? Complete mobilization of resources and people
As a result of the Russian Revolution, did Russia become a major Imperialistic power? No, this is something they did not do
What was the name of Lenin’s political party that will lead a violent overthrow of the Russian government? Bolsheviks
List three reasons why Germany hated the Versailles Treaty. Forced Germany to reduce size of its military, Germany had to pay billions in reparations to France and Great Britain, blamed Germany for starting the war
What peace keeping group did Woodrow Wilson propose be created after WWI? League of Nations
Identify the weaknesses of the League of Nations: United States did not join, League could not agree to use force against aggression
How did the Dawes Plan help Germany after WWI? Reduced Germany’s reparation debt
Stalin’s Five Year Plans for Russia: what was the main goal of the plans? - 42. - 43. - Transform USSR from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy
Name three ways a fascist government controls its people: Leaders using organizations to promote ideas, strong central governments, secret police forces
What is one freedom fascist do not allow? Democratic governments, which would lead to a weak economy
44. One factor that led Germans to accept Hitler was the widespread belief that Hitler had ended what in Germany? Belief that Hitler had ended Germany’s economic depression
How did the Nuremburg Laws affect Jews in Germany? Excluded Jews from German citizenship and forbade marriages between Jews and Germans
Describe what happened during Kristallnacht (Nov. 9, 1938) Destructive rampage against German Jews led by Nazis
In August of 1939, what country signed a nonaggression pact with Germany? Russia
What was Hitler’s main purpose for attacking the Soviet Union? Secure land and Slavic slaves to strengthen the Third Reich
Significance of the Stalingrad? Entire Sixth Army, considered the best of the German troops, was lost
Gypsies, Aryans, Slavic peoples, Jews: which group was not picked for the ovens of the Holocaust? Aryans
What was the major decision to come out of the Yalta Conference? Established the United Nations
In order to protect the Soviet Union from the West, what did Stalin create to serve as a ‘buffer’ between the two areas? Iron Curtain; Winston Churchill referred to this buffer
This was the period of political tension between the US and the Soviet Union that dominated the post WII era? Cold War
What was the main purpose of the Marshall Plan? Restore economic stability of European nations after World War II
What was the Warsaw Pact? Created a military alliance between the Soviet Union and various Eastern European countries
What was the purpose for the building of the Berlin Wall? To prevent East Germans from defecting to West Germany
Identify 3 Cold War conflicts: Cuban Missile Crisis, Space race, War in Vietnam
What did Stalin hope to achieve by controlling all aspects of communication (radio, newspapers, etc.)? Control public opinion by giving the public false information
As a major historical moment, what did the fall of the Berlin Wall symbolize as concerns communism and the Cold War? It represented the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War
Which US President said, “ . . .tear down the wall . . .”, and what was he really saying? President Reagan; referring to the Berlin Wall
What is the name for the racist government policy South African leaders turned into law in 1948? Apartheid
Independence movements in Africa, India, and Southeast Asia had one common similarity about them: What was it? They were overthrowing European imperialist powers
Name the nation created in the Middle East in 1948 which has led to regional conflicts with its Arab nations, wars, and conflict over land ownership. Israel
During Mao Zedong’s “Great Leap Forward”, what change did he want to bring about in China’s collective farm system? Combine Chinese collective farms into larger communes
What group of Chinese citizens led the protest of Communist rule during the Tiananmen Square uprising? Students who sought to the end of corruption of Communist party leaders
Created by: jbertich