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Ch. 21

TermDefinition
Montesquieu Wrote Spirit of Laws Described England’s system of government with three branches Ideas influenced the US Constitution
Copernicus Wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres First to propose the Heliocentric Theory
Heliocentric The sun is at the center of the universe All the planets revolve around the sun in circular orbits Earth rotates on an axis
Deism Religion based on reason and natural law
Descartes Wrote Discourse on Method “I think, therefore I am” meaning that only the fact that was beyond doubt was his own existence Mind and matter must be completely separate so that matter could be investigates
Romantic Movement Opponent criticized philosophers for ignoring their feelings and emotions leading to a new school of thought
Salons Gatherings hosted by wealthy women where authors and philosophers would discuss their new ideas
Scientific Method A systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
Rousseau Romantic philosopher who wrote The Social Contract, which states that people must agree to be governed by the general will, or what is best for the entire community
Metaphysics The idea that there are two separate worlds, one that can be known through the use of logic and reason and another that can be known through the use of feelings and emotions
Adam Smith Said government had three roles in The Wealth of Nations: protect society from invasion, defend citizens from injustice, and to maintain necessary public works such as roads and canals
Inductive Reasoning Basis of the scientific method; proceeds from particular observations to general conclusions
Voltaire Criticized Christianity, believed in religious toleration, championed freedom of speech
Laissez-faire Argues that government should leave the economy alone
Newton Explained three laws of motion including the universal law of gravitation to explain all motion in the universe
Kepler Formulated laws of planetary motion that supported Heliocentric Theory but also proved that the shape of planets’ orbits was elliptical rather than circular
Created by: bm0724