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Chapter 21 Quiz

World History

Montesquieu •Wrote Spirit of the Laws (1748) •Described England’s system of gov. as Executive Branch, Legislative Branch, Judicial •Separation of powers & Checks and Balances -Ideas influenced the US Constitution
Heliocentric Theory theory that the sun was at the center of the universe first discovered by copernicus
Copernicus -first proposed the Heliocentric Theory-Thought the Earth rotated on an axis-wrote "On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres" to explain theories
Kepler laws of planetary motion that supported Heliocentric Theory but also proved that the shape of the orbits was elliptical (oval) rather than circular
Newton Mathematical Principals of Nature Philosophy (Principia) explain the three laws of motion including the universal law of gravitation to explain all motion in the universe;saw the universe as a well regulated machine
Harvey showed that the heart pump blood through the arteries and veins
Scientific Method a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing data
Inductive Reasoning basis of the scientist method; proceeds from particular observations to general conclusions
Scientific Revolution was a new way to look at the universe when scientist challenged the ideas the authority figures and used the used the scientific to develop new theories
Adam Smith Wrote "The Wealth of Nations" said government had three roles: (1) Protect society from invasion (2) Defend citizens from injustice (3) Maintain necessary public works such as roads and canals
Metaphysics The idea that there are two separate worlds, one that can be known through the use of logic and reason and another that can be known through the use of feelings and emotions
Rousseau a Romantic philosopher who wrote The Social Contract,which states that people must agree to be governed by the general will, or what is best for the entire community
Salons Wealthy women hosted gatherings known where authors and philosophers would discuss their new ideas
Voltaire •Criticized Christianity •Believed in religious toleration •Believed in deism, a religion based on reason and natural law •Championed freedom of Speech: “I may not agree with a word you say, but I will defend to thele death your right to say it.”
Laissez-faire argues that government should leave the economy alone
Vesalius worked in anatomy disproved that of the ancient Greek physician, Galen
Romantic Movement led to Fascism (instinct over reason); people should be more concerned with their emotions instead of reason
Descartes Wrote: Discourse on Method “I think therefore I am” meaning that the only fact was beyond doubt of his own exist Concluded that mind and matter must be completely separate so that matter could be investigated independently by reason
The Enlightenment •Philosophers looked for natural laws governing human behavior•Goal was to apply reason and the Scientific Method everyday life•Believed in: reason, natural laws, progress, and liberty•Argued against:slavery,torture,censorship, divine rights
Created by: sossenkopp