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World History AP

summer 2014 assignment

Paleolithic Age the "old stone age" lasted from 2.5 million to 8000 BC; stone & bone tools were used
Anthropologist one who studies humans, past and present, using artifacts, written records, and observations
Culture people group's unique way of life: language, religion, art, behavior, relationships, institutions, technology
Civilization complex culture with 5 characteristics: advanced cities, specialized workers (artisans), complex institutions of government/religion, record keeping, and advanced technology
Neolithic Age "new stone age" period between 10,000 - 3000 BC; pottery, crops, and domestication of animals
Ice Age long-term reduction in the Earth's temperature that led to expansion of the polar ice sheets; ended about 13,000 years ago ending the Pleistocene Age (age of extreme climate variation)
Migration the movement of people/animals from one region to another by push/pull factors; early man is believed to have migrated out of East Africa
Pangaea archeologists believe all the continents were once part of one super-continent before tectonic plate movements separated them
Beringia the land bridge that opened up at the end of the last ice age allowing migration of Asian groups into the Americas
"Lucy" name given to remains of female hominid found in Ethiopia; at 3.5 million years old, oldest known to date
Nomadic people who wander from place to place; no permanent settlements
Domestication (of animals) hunter's expert knowledge of animals helped them tame dogs, horses, pigs, cattle, and goats; later- oxen, camel, and llamas
Agriculture (Neolithic) Revolution the cultivation of wild seeds into crops around 10,000 - 8000 BC that transformed people from hunter-gatherers to farmers as climates warmed, leading to development of settlements of growing populations
Irrigation method used to bring fresh water to settlements for agriculture: canals, dikes, dams, and aqueducts were early technologies employed
River Valley Civilizations (4) 1. Mesopotamia (between the Tigris/Euphrates Rivers in modern Iraq) 2. Nile Valley(Egypt) 3. Indus Valley (India) 4. Huang He (Yellow R. in China)
Fertile Crescent Known as the Cradle of Civilization and the birthplace of agriculture, urbanization, writing, trade, science, history and organized religion and was first populated c.10,000 BCE when agriculture and the domestication of animals began in the region
Mesopotamia civilization that arose in the alluvial plain between Tigris & Euphrates R. developed bronze, copper, the wheel by 4000 B.C.
Tigris-Euphrates River Valley composed of the city-states of Uruk, Ur, Sumer, Kish, Nineveh, Susa, & Babylon
Sumerian Civilization developed cuneiform writing system, Astronomy, number system of 10, 60 (hour), and 360 (circle). Ziggurat towers, polytheistic religion, city-states ruled by divine monarch.
Babylon unified Mesopotamia in 1600 B.C. King Hammurabi's code of laws-1st set of written laws
Ur Mesopotamian city-state from which Jewish tradition states Abraham migrated out of to settle in Palestine (modern-day Israel)
Ziggurats Sumerian temples resembling spiraled towers used for religious-astronomical services
Cuneiform form of writing used by Sumerians using a wedge-shaped stylus to imprint clay tablets with pictures and geometric shapes representing sounds; first known writing system
Code of Hammurabi world's first code of laws that regulated property rights (important for settlements) and harsh punishment for crimes (eye-for-an-eye)
Theocracy form of government ruled by religious leaders or leaders considered divine
Monotheism introduced by the Hebrew civilization- the exclusive worship of a single god (rejection of all others)
Polytheism belief and worship of many gods; originated as giving attributes of divinity to forces of nature
Judaism religion of the Hebrews, a Semitic people that originated in Mesopotamia and migrated to Palestine. Priests & Prophets emphasized their calling by the one God Yaweh as "chosen people" & command to obey strict moral code for living.
Abraham Patriarch(father) of the three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity,& Islam; according to Bible, led migration to Palestine on command of Yaweh
Hebrews/Israelites Semitic people, known as Jews, followers of Judaism. Religion is a way of life. Strict obedience to moral & dietary laws. Refusal to submit/convert has allowed them to maintain their ethnic & cultural identity for over 3000 years.
Old Testament in Judaism, called the Torah; in Christianity, called the pre-Christ scripture of the Bible. contains the history of the Hebrews, the Law, the Psalms, and the Prophets
Moses Hebrew leader who led his people out of Egyptian captivity, wandered in the desert for a generation where he was given 10 commandments. died before the Hebrews crossed the Jordan River conquering part of Palestine
Sabbath sacred day of rest to commemorate the creation of the earth (God rested on the 7th day). For Jews-Saturday, for Christians-Sunday (for most)
Nile River Valley civilization began 3000 BC in North Africa along the Nile River delta. Protected from invasion by deserts and Mediterranean & Red Seas, retained a stable society for 3000 years
Early Egyptian Civilization by 3200 BC a unified kingdom had arisen based on a theocratic government with Pharaoh as a god/king. Mathematics (24 hour day), medicine (embalming of mummies), and engineering (pyramids) were major accomplishments
Hieroglyphics early system of Egyptian writing that used symbols to represent words and sounds. Discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 by Pierre Bouchard allowed modern linguists to translate ancient writings
Papyrus thin, paper-like material taken from Egyptian reeds (plants) and used to write on. Many ancient scrolls are papyrus (from which the term paper derives from)
Pictographs system of writing using drawings to represent sounds, objects, or ideas (Mesopotamia, Egypt & China)
Pharaoh title of the kings of Egypt. Possessed immense power, worshiped as a god, pyramids built to house them in the after-life
Indus River Valley (2500 BC) settlements arose along rivers originating in Himalayan Mts flowing to Arabian Sea
Huang He Valley Yellow River valley civilization developed around 2000 BC under Shang, then Zhou dynasties. Developed pottery, bronze, iron, silk, rode horses, ideographs (complex pictographs)
Monarchy form of government ruled by kings/queens in which the transfer of power is hereditary.
Economics a development of civilization in which society determines who controls the resources, what gets produced, how,and who receives the product
Surplus warmer climates, human settlements and advances in irrigation and domestication of seeds allowed for an abundance of food products that led to larger populations, division of labor, trade with other settlements, and warfare over supplies
Bronze mixture of copper and tin that produced superior tools and weapons
Embalming Egyptian discovery of draining corpse of fluids and packing with preservatives to create mummified remains for the after-life
Kilns at first wood, then coal-burning stoves used to generate extreme heat for metal working(copper, bronze, iron)
Millet type of grain grown in Africa, India, China for use as cereal or livestock food
Dynasty a succession of rulers belonging to the same family or political group. Chinese dynasties operated under the Mandate of Heaven concept in which negative events signaled a displeasure by the heavens and a time to replace those in power
Harrappa/Mohenjo-Daro urban city created on an organized grid pattern. homes had running water, fist toilet/sewage systems/public baths/grain storage
Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC) 1st Chinese dynasty- developed writing on oracle bones, rode on horseback & chariots, fertility gods
Settlements (other ancient) Akkadians (Mesopotamia) led by King Sargon-militaristic; Kush (Africa)-interacted/invaded Egypt; Olmec & Chavin (Americas)-Statues & Jaguar worship; Assyrians & Phoenicians (Egypt/Palestine)
Created by: wm0397