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Jewish History Exam

Who was the Babylonian King when Babylon took over Judah? Neubuchadnezzar
Who was exiled in the first exile from Babylonian Judah? King Jehoachin and rich/upper-class Jews
Why did the first exile from Babylonian Judah happen? When Nebuchadnezzar took over, he thought that those Jews were the ones w/ political power + were the biggest threat to revolt against his rule
Who was exiled in the second exile from Babylonian Judah? Everyone in Jewish community except for poor
Why did the second exile from Babylonian Judah happen? Punishment for Tzedekiah's revolt against Nebuchadnezzar
Who was exiled in the third exile from Babylonian Judah? Every remaining Jew
Why did the third exile from Babylonian Judah happen? Punishment for killing Gedaliah (direct disrespect towards Nebuchadnezzar)
Who was Tzedekiah? King of Judah appointed by Nebuchadnezzar after he took over in 597 BCE
Conflict btwn Tzedekiah + Jeremiah Tzedekiah wanted to rebel against Nebuchadnezzar but Jeremiah thinks that rebellion is bad idea bc Nebuchadnezzar will destroy Temple so Tzedekiah + Jeremiah disagree w/ e/o
How did Nebuchadnezzar punish the Jews after Tzedekiah tried to revolt? Tortured Tzedekiah (killed Tzedekiah's sons in front on him + pulls his eyes out), exiled Jews, destroyed Temple, razed/burned fields
How did the Jews feel about being exiled to Babylon? According to "By the Rivers of Babylon", they were very upset bc they did not know how to practice Judaism outside of Jerusalem
What does Jeremiah write in his letter to the exiles? Tells them to build Jewish community in Babylon, pray for Babylon, marry + have children, have houses + gardens. Also tells them that G-d will bring them back to Jerusalem in 70 yrs
Did the Jews listen to Jeremiah? What does this say about Jewish life in Babylon during exile? They did listen to Jeremiah. Beginning of exile = vry sad time but later on they built large and important Jewish community in Babylon
What was Ezekiel's vision of Dry Bones? Vision of valley of dry bones that grow flesh + come back to life + God breathes life into them
What does Ezekiel's vision of Dry Bones represent? Represents that the Jews should have hope bc G-d will return them to Judah both spiritually + physically
When was First Temple destroyed? (Tisha) 9th of Av, 586 BCE
What is context + content of Cyrus Cylinder? Cryus takes over Babylonia + makes it part of Persian empire + allows all exiles to go back to Babylon
What does Cyrus Cylinder tell us about King Cyrus? Tells us that he wanted people of Babylon to like him + not revolt/rebel
How is the Cyrus Declaration different from the Cyrus Cylinder? Declaration Ezra makes commandment for Jews to return to Judah.Cylinder Cyrus allows Jews to choose. Cyrus Cylinder=Babylonian religious document (Cyrus says Marduk helped them defeat Bab.) Cyrus Declaration Ezra says G-d helped them defeat Babylon
How did the Jews who returned to Judea fell about being allowed back? According to Shir Hama'a lot, they were very happy and felt like they were living in a dream
Who were the Samaritans? Descendants of Jews who managed to stay in Judah during Assyrian exile + intermarried w/ non-Jews
What did the Samaritans ask the Jews and how did they respond? Samaritans ask to help rebuild Temple but the Jews say no
Why do the Jews not allow the Samaritans help rebuild the Temple? Bc the Jews do not consider the Samaritans as truly Jewish
What did the Samaritans do to the Jews? Lie to Persian King + tell him that Jews are planning to rebel so the Jews were not allowed to build Temple
What kind of leader was Ezra? Religious leader
What did Ezra do to help the Jews? Battled intermarriage + established 10 takkanot to help the Jews recommit to Judaism
How did Ezra impact the Jewish ppl's lives in Judea? Helps Jews rededicate themselves to Judaism
What kind of leader was Nehemiah? Political
What did Nehemiah do to help the Jews? Rebuilt walls of Jerusalem to protect Jerusalem
How did Nehemiah impact the Jewish ppl's lives in Judea? Helped defend Jews from enemies
Who was the Greek leader who defeated the Persian king? Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great's relationship w/ the Jews? Treated them well + w/ respect, allowed them to practice Judaism
What is Hellenism? Greek culture + religion
What were the 2 Jewish responses to Hellenization? Hellenists (Extreme + Moderate Hellenists) vs. Hasidim
How did Rabbis feel about Hellenism + Hellenization? Thought it was very bad. Thought moderate Hellenists were worse than extreme Hellenists + anyone who read Ben Sira's moderate Hellenists books would not go to heaven
How is the Synagogue in Alexandria described? Large, nice, fancy. People sat w/ other ppl of their craft/occupation
What does the Synagogue in Alexandria tell us about Jewish life under Alexander's rule? They had wealthy + well-established Jewish community. Were allowed to practice Judaism and did not experience discrimination or persecution
Who was Ptolemy? Greek king, controlled Alexandria (Egypt)
What is the Septuagint? Greek translation of Torah
Why was the Septuagint written? Ptolemy wanted to complete his library + the Jews spoke Greek better than Hebrew - Septuagint helped Jews understand + study Torah
Negative view of Septuagint? Huge sin bc the Torah can never be translated accurately, to attempt to do so is as much of a sin as the golden calf was
Positive view of Septuagint? G-d helped the scribes translate it so even though Septuagint isn't word for word same as Torah still captures essence Eg Naseh et Adam bTzalmeinu, means man was created in our image was changed to His image no confusion that Jews believe in multiple Gods
Who was King Antiochus IV? Seleucid King
What were the causes of the Maccabean revolt? Antiochus raised taxes + forbid Jewish practice
Who started the Maccabean revolt? Matitiyahu
Explain the term to die al-Kiddush HaShem To die al-Kiddush HaShem means if you have a choice btwn dying or desecrating His name, you should choose to die
How does the term to die al-Kiddush HaShem relate to the Maccabean Revolt? The Maccabees + Hasidim decided to risk their lives to practice Judaism
What happened when Jews reclaimed the Temple? They ritually cleansed it
What 2 Jewish sects were created after the Revolt? Pharisees + Sadducees
Why were their tensions btwn the Pharisees + Saducees? They disagreed very strongly
What were the Pharisees like? Everyday Jews, believed in the Oral Torah
What were the Sadducees like? Upper class Jews + priests, rejected Oral Torah
What was Alexander Yannai's relationship w/ the Sadducees? Got along well w/ them bc the Sadducees did not disagree with or rebel against Yannai
What was Alexander Yannai's relationship w/ the Pharisees? Did not get along well with Pharisees bc they didn't like that he combined his Kingship + High Priestship (this is not allowed in Torah) + that the Hasmoneans began to Hellenize again (which was what the Maccabees had worked so hard to fight against)
What happened when Alexander Yannai died? He tells his wife, Queen Salome to make peace w/ Pharisees. She listens. Shimon ben Shetah replaces Sadducees w/ Pharisees in Sanhedrin + they become the ruling class.
Why/how does Shimon ben Shetah replace the Saducees in the Sanhedrin w/ the Pharisees? Says only those who understand + can find proof from the Torah should be allowed to be in the Sanhedrin. Sadducees are repeatedly unable to fulfill the task, so they are replaced one by one by Pharisees who are
How did the civil war btwn Salome's sons begin? After Salome dies, her sons Aristobulus + Hyrcanus fight over crown. Both ask Rome for help.
How did the civil war btwn Salome's sons end? Rome helps Hyrcanus, but takes over Judah + only makes Hyrcanus the High Priest (not the King)
How did the Jews feel toward King Herod? Didn't like him bc his grandparents weren't Jewish by blood (were converts to Judaism)
How did the Romans feel toward King Herod? Liked + supported him
Why was Herod called "Herod The Builder"? Build forts like Masada + Caesaria + he helped renovate 2nd Temple
2 new sects that were established during Roman era? Sicarii + Essenes
Who were the Sicarii? Killed Romans + Roman supporters bc they didn't like Roman rule
Who were the Essenes? Were pure, rejected + avoided Roman life + culture
Pharisees during Roman rule's politics? Agreed w/ Romans
Pharisees during Roman rule's religion? Agreed w/ Romans
Pharisee's opinion on rebellion against Rome? Anti-rebellion
Sicarii politics? Disagreed w/ Romans
Sicarii religion? Neutral w/ Romans
Sicarii's opinion on rebellion against Rome? Started rebellion
Essenes' politics? Disagreed w/ Romans
Essenes' religion? Disagreed w/ Romans
How did Essenes deal w/ Roman rule? Left Jerusalem
What are the Dead Sea Scrolls? Scrolls found near Dead Sea, oldest copy of Torah
Why are the Dead Sea Scrolls important? Give us lots of info about 2nd Temple period/Roman era
What was Jesus' goal when Christianity began? Jesus wanted Judaism to be more about how we treat ppl (ethics) than about following rules
What were the causes of the Great Revolt? High taxes, lack of independence, not being treated well by Romans
Who was Josephus? Jewish historian who was leader in Great Revolt but was captured by Romans + became Roman citizen
Why is Josephus considered a traitor? He helped the Romans
Who started the Great Revolt? Sicarii
Who was Titus? Roman general during Great Revolt
When was 2nd Temple destroyed? 9th (Tisha) b'Av, 70 CE
According to the Rabbis, why was the 2nd Temple destroyed? Shinat Chinim - baseless hatred, hating w/o cause (Kamtza + Bar Kamtza story)
Kamtza + Bar Kamtza story pt. 1? Man had best friend named Kamtza + enemy named Bar Kamtza accidentally invited Bar Kamtza to party very rude to Bar Kamtza, told him to leave. Bar Kamtza was very embarrassed, asked to stay
Kamtza + Bar Kamtza story pt. 2? BK was very angry so he told Romans that Jews planned to rebel. to prove it, Romans sent Jews sacrifice. The Jews refused to sacrifice it bc BK cut the cow's lip (can be no blemishes on sacrifices). bc they refused, Romans destroyed 2nd Temple
What happened @ Masada? Mass suicide, last stronghold of Jews. Killed themselves, wives + families rather than be slaves to Romans
First stage of return to Judah? 539 BCE - Sheshbazzar leads small group back to lay foundation for Temple
Second stage of return to Judah? 522 BCE- 42 000 Jews led by Zerubbabel + Joshua to begin to rebuild Temple
Third stage of return to Judah? 458 + 445 BCE - Nehemiah (governor of Judah) + Ezra lead remaining Jews back
Who was the governor of Judah under Cyrus' rule? Nehemiah
Created by: lovinglifexoxo



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