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Global Regents Terms

Terms for the New State York Global Regents

95 Theses Document written by Martin Luther detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church.
absolute monarchy A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
African Trading Kingdoms Three African kingdoms, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai that were important in the trans-Sahara trade of gold form the west coast of Africa to North Africa and the Middle East. Included Ghana, Mali, and Songhai.
Age of Exploration Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Agrarian Revolution The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
Alexander the Great (356 BCE-323 BCE) He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
Allied Powers Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Analects, The Collection of moral and social teachings of Confucius, including the concept of the Five Relationships.
apartheid A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage.
appeasement The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
aqueducts Above ground structures used to carry water long distances. Built by the ancient Romans.
archipelago A group or chain of islands. Such as Japan.
artisan A person who is skilled at a craft, such as weaving, or woodcarving.
Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938) Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers.
Augustus (63 BCE – 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE – 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Stepson to Julius Caesar.
Axis Powers Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
barter The exchange of goods or services for other goods or services.
BCE Date designation meaning Before Common Era, or more than two thousand years ago.
Berlin Conference (1884-1885) During European Imperialism, various European leaders met in Berlin, Germany to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans.
blitzkrieg German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
block printing A system of printing where characters are carved onto a wooden block. The block is then inked and pressed onto a sheet of paper.
Bolívar, Simón (1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
Bolshevik Early name of communists during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Bonaparte, Napoleon (1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
Boxer Rebellion (1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination.
Bushido Code of conduct for Samurai and nobles during Japanese feudalism.
Byzantine Empire (330-1453) The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Caesar, Julius (100-44 BCE), Roman general and statesman. He is responsible for setting up the imperial system in Rome which placed his grandnephew, Augustus, on the throne.
cartography The skill of making maps.
Caste System A rigid social class system in Hinduism.
Catherine the Great An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
CE Date designation meaning Common Era, or the last two thousand years of history.
Chinese Communist Revolution A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Chivalry Code of conduct for knight and nobles during European feudalism.
Churchill, Sir Winston (1874-1965) British politician and Prime Minster of Great Britain from 1940 to 1945, and 1951 to 1955. He is regarded as the finest British leader of the 20th century and was instrumental in leading Britain to victory during World War II.
city-state An independent state consisting of a city and its surrounding lands.
civil service exam In China, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the bureaucracy.
Cold War Non violent conflict between the Soviet Union and their allies and the United States and their allies. Numerous secondary conflicts arise due to the Cold War.
Columbian Exchange The exchange of goods and other things, such as disease from the Old World (Europe) to the new World (North and South America) and back.
communism A system of government in which a single, totalitarian, party holds power. It is characterized by state control of the economy, and restriction on personal freedoms. It was first proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto.
Communist Manifesto, The A book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Communist Revolution A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
conquistadors Spanish conquerors who came to the New World in search of gold and other riches.
Constantine (274 CE – 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Counter-Reformation The movement initiated by the Catholic Church to contain the Protestant Reformation and, if possible, end it.
cultural diffusion The spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war.
cuneiform One of the earliest forms of writing. It consisted of wedge shaped symbols usually imprinted in clay. Used throughout ancient Mesopotamia.
Cyrillic An alphabet created by Eastern Orthodox monks for the Slavic language. It is based on Greek, and still used through the various Slavic countries today, such as Russia.
Czar Nicholas II (1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution’s leadership.
Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997.
détente A policy during the Cold War which was aimed at relaxing tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union. The policy calls for increase diplomatic and commercial activity.
diaspora The enforced spreading out of a group of people. In history, there has been both a Jewish Diaspora and an African Diaspora.
Edict of Milan (313 CE) Proclamation by the Roman Emperor Constantine outlawing the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire.
encomienda system A system of production in Spain’s New World possessions which granted permission to conquistadors to enslave as many people needed to work a plantation.
Enlightenment A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe.
Estates Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.
Estates General The legislative body of France. Composed of representatives from the three estates which are Clergy in the First Estate, Nobles in the Second Estate, and peasants in the Third Estate. Each Estate is entitled to one vote on legislative matters.
ethnocentric A belief in the superiority of a certain ethnic group or race.
fascism A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator.
Ferdinand and Isabella During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
Ferdinand, Franz (1863-1914) Archduke of Austria, nephew to the Emperor. He was assainated by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914. This resulted in the start of World War I.
Fourteen Points Speech An address given to the United States’ Congress by President Woodrow Wilson concerning the end of World War I and the treatment of all concerned with the war. The speech outlines the League of Nations.
Gandhi, Mohandas (1869-1948) Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country’s freedom from the British Empire.
Ghana One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.
ghetto Term given to poor areas of town where Jews were sent during World War II.
Glasnost A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism.
Great Leap Forward The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry.
Gupta Dynasty (320-550 C.E.)Ruling family in India during its golden age. Responsible for many achievements.
Gutenberg, Johannes (1400?-1468) German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type.
Henry VIII (1491-1547) King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation.
Hirohito (1901-1989) Emperor of Japan from 1926 until 1989. He is the last Japanese emperor to be considered divine. Led Japan through World War II.
Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) Vietnamese leader who is responsible for ousting first the French, then the United States from his country. Supported by both communist China and the Soviet Union, he guided Vietnam through decades long warfare to emerge as a communist nation.
humanism A philosophical movement during the Renaissance that stressed life on Earth, and the quality of being human. Rejected living only for the afterlife of Christianity.
Hutus and Tutsis Tribes in Rwanda responsible for decades of warfare.
ideographs Writing system that uses pictures of ideas.
Indian National Congress Nationalistic organization in India with the purpose of ending British control. Prominent members include Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
indulgence Letters of forgiveness for one's sins provided by the medieval Church, and one of the causes of the Reformation.
Iron Curtain A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union’s policy of isolation during the Cold War. The Iron Curtain isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. Its most poignant symbol was the Berlin Wall.
irrigation A system to bring water to support crops.
Israeli - Palestinian Conflict Conflict over landownership in Israel/Palestine. This conflict has at times involved most of the nations of the Middle East as well as the United States and the Soviet Union.
Justinians Code A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.
Kaiser Wilhelm (1859-1941) King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war.
Khrushchev, Nikita (1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin’s policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Korean Bridge The term given to process in which cultural diffusion occurred between China and Japan though Korean contact with both civilizations.
Korean War A war between North Korean, which was supported by both the Soviet Union and communist China, and South Korea, which was supported by the United States and the United Nations.
Kristallnacht On November 9th, 1938, Nazis in German looted, and burned Jewish stores and Synagogues, often beating Jews in the street. Over 90 Jews were killed during Kristallnacht. Also called Night of Broken Glass.
Laws of the Twelve Tables A system of laws. Some of the features of this system include, men being equal under the law, having the right to face their accusers, and being considered innocent until proven guilty.
Lenin, Vladimir (1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader and political theorist. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union.
Locke, John (1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.
Long March March the Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party.
Louis XIV (1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
Louis XVI (1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded.
L'Ouverture, Toussaint (1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century.
Luther, Martin (1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences.
Magna Carta A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy.
Mali One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. Greatest ruler was Mansa Musa, who converted to Islam and made a famous pilgrimage.
Mandate of Heaven Divine right of rule in China
Mandela, Nelson (1918 - 2014)A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa.
manorialism Economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord's castle or manor house.
Mansa Musa Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976.
Meiji Restoration The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
mercantilism The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports.
militarism Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
National Assembly First new government during the first stage of the French Revolution.
nationalism Pride in one’s country or culture, often excessive in nature.
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism.
Neolithic Age (10,000 BCE - 5000 BCE) New Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the development of agriculture and permanent settlements.
Neolithic Revolution (10,000 - 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
Nuremburg Trials War crime trials held in Nuremburg after World War II to try the surviving Nazis concerning the Holocaust, aggressive war making, mistreatment of prisoners among other things.
nomad A person who belongs to a group of people who move from place to place seasonally in search of food and water.
Open Door Policy A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Orthodox Christianity A branch of Christianity developed in the Byzantine Empire, after its split from the Roman Empire. It spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean and Russia.
Ottoman Empire Hereditary nation state centered in Turkey. It was founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and extended across most of Asia Minor and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire collapsed shortly after World War II.
Pan Africanism Nationalistic movement which emphasized the unity of all Africans, and sought to end foreign control.
Panama Canal A canal that crosses the isthmus of Panama connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Built by the United States between 1904 and 1914.
patron Someone who provides support to a specific cause and/or person/people.
Pax Mongolia Also known as the Mongol Peace. A time when global trade expanded due to the political stability provided by Mongol rulers.
Pax Romana A 200 hundred year period of relative peace throughout the Roman Empire. Occurs during the first two centuries C.E..
peninsula An area of land surrounded on three sides by water. Italy, Greece, and the southern part of India are all peninsulas.
Perestroika A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise.
Persian Empire Ancient Middle Eastern empire comprising modern day Iran. The Perisan Empire dominated the Middle East from the middle of the 6th century BCE to about the end of the 5th century BCE. Persia was later conquered by Alexander the Great.
Peter the Great (1672-1725) Czar of Russia. He was responsible for the westernization of Russia in the 18th century.
pilgrimage A religious journey to visit a shrine or other holy site.
Pol Pot (1925-1998) Leader of Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. Pol Pot is responsible for the deaths of almost 2 million of his own people due to starvation, execution, and beatings.
Pope Urban II (1040?-1099) The head of the Roman Catholic Church who issued the proclamation the began the First Crusade.
Pre-Columbian Period of North and South American history before the arrival of the Europeans in the late 15th century.
proletariat Term given to the working class people in society.
Prince, The A book of political advice written by Niccolo Machiavelli during the Renaissance in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. Machiavelli wrote that a ruler should take any action to remain in power.
Prussia Former independent kingdom and state of Germany. In the late 19th century, it formed the central state of the German Empire, which was one of the largest in Europe.
quipas A record keeping system that used colored, knotted string developed by the Incan Civilization.
recant To reject a belief or withdraw something previously said.
Reconquista The re-conquest of Spain by the Christians after centuries of Islamic domination.
republic A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature.
Roman Empire The territories ruled by ancient Rome which at one time encompassed most of the Mediterranean world and parts of France, England, and Germany. The empire lasted from 27 BCE to 395 CE.
russification A policy in Russia to make all of the peoples under their control conform to Russian culture and language. It was used in both the Russian Empire and later, in the Soviet Union.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.
Salt March (1930) Passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
satellite Man made objects that orbit the Earth or perform deep space probes. The perform a number of functions such as communications and weather.
Sepoy Mutiny (1857-1859) A revolt by the hired Hindu and Muslim soldiers of the British East India Company. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a colony.
serfs Farmers who were tied to the land during European feudalism. They were not slaves because they could not be bought or sold, but they could not readily leave the manor either. Serfs were given land to farm in exchange for service to their lord.
Silk Road Trade route from China to the Middle East. Called the Silk Road due to China’s most important export.
Six-Day War (1967) War between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordon where Israel defeated the three in six days, capturing territory from each.
Social Darwinism A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.
sovereignty The right of a country to govern itself without interference.
Stalin, Josef (1879-1953) The General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party from 1922 until 1953. Known for his brutality in dealing with opponents and his failed policies of collectivism that caused widespread famine across the Soviet Union.
Suez Canal A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Suleiman (1494-1566) Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and considered to be their greatest ruler. Under his leadership, the Ottoman Empire reached its greatest height.
Sun Yixian (1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place. Also known as Sun Yat-sen.
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
tariff A tax on imports.
terrace farming The cutting out of flat areas (terraces) into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Terrace farms appears as steps cut into a mountainside. This adaptation allowed both the early Chinese, and the Inca of Mesoamerica to grow.
Tiananmen Square Massacre A political and social protest by university students in Beijing, China in 1989. The protest called for political and social reforms and resulted in the government using the military to end it.
Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1867) Feudal Warlord rulers of Japan. Responisble for closing Japan off from the rest of the world. Overthrown during the Meiji Restoration.
Treaty of Nanjing (1842) An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the Opium War. The Chinese were forced to open several ports to British trade, provide Britain with complete control of Hong Kong.
Treaty of Versailles Treaty ending World War I. It was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II.
trench warfare A form of combat where armies fight each other from opposing fortified positions, usually consisting of long, dugout holes or trenches.
Triangle Trade A catch all phrase for the trade occurring between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Trade goods include raw materials from the Americas, manufactured goods from Europe, and slaves from Africa.
Triple Alliance An alliance that was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy during World War I.
Triple Entente An alliance that was made up of France, Russia, and Great Britain during World War I.
Viet Cong The name of the Vietnamese communist who fought against South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War.
Vietnam Conflict/War A war in the country of Vietnam, first between the French and Vietnamese, as France was attempting to hold onto its colony. The second war was between the United States and the communist forces of North Vietnam. The North Vietnamese eventually won.
Walesa, Lech (1943- ) Polish labor union leader, Nobel laureate, and President of Poland from 1990 to 1995. He was instrumental in the collapse of communism in Poland and throughout Eastern Europe through the work of the labor union Solidarity.
Warsaw Pact An international defense alliance between the Soviet Union and many of its Eastern European satellite states as a response to NATO. Formed in 1955.
Created by: CMallhotra