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chap 18 cont 11

venous and arterial blood sampling in large animals

what is the benefit of cleaning the site with isoproyl alcohol it removes debris, provides antibacterial activity and facilitates visualization of the vein
common veins used in blood sampling in adult equine include jugular, cephalic, transverse facial, lateral thoracic and the saphenous vvein on neonates
in cattle there are additional collection sites they are coccygeal vein (tail), subcutaneous abdominal vein (milk vein)
milk veins are NEVER recommended for venipuncture because they are very large and are prone to prlonged and pronounced bleeding and large hematoma formation. use of these veins can result in life threatening problems
llamas and alpaca do not have a visible jugular groove. what is unique about these animals jugular vein they have valves that function to keep blood flowing toward the heart rather than allowing backflow when the head is lowered
how do you visualize a jugular site on a llama or alpaca create an imaginary line along the ventral border of the mandible and dropping an imaginary line vertically down from just infromnt of the ear
there is a high and a low site for jugular venipuncture what is the advantage for using the high site the jugular vein is separated there from the carotid artery by a muscle making it unlikely to penetrate the artery
venipuncture at the low site has advantages and disadvantages they are the skin is thinner and movement of the head is less of a problem. but the carotid artery and the jugular vein are in close proximity in this area increasing the likelihood of arterial venipuncture
other sites of venipuncture for llamas and alpacas are saphenous vein, ear vein, middle coccygeal vein, cephalic vein.
collection of llama and alpaca neonates are jugular, cephalic and saphenous veins and occasionally the ear vein
veins commonly used in sheep and goats jugular, cephalic and femoral veins
what is the best position for sheep to be in for venipuncture the "set up" position sitting up on their rump
veins commonly used in pigs for venipuncture include cranial vena cava, jugular, auricular, cephalic and peripheral leg veins and occationally the orbital sinus or tail vein
why is using the cranial vena cava not recommended in pet pigs there is a potential of hitting the phrenic nerve which can alter the functioning of the diaphragm and can result in cardiac or respiratory problems.
why is it best to use the right side of the pig for vena cava venipuncture the phrenic nerve on the right side of the pig is anatomically more protected on the right side of the animal
why is use of the jugular vein discouraged in piglets because it is harder to access and the phrenic nerve can be punctured
what sites of venipuncture are better for pigs ear vein, peripheral leg vein, tail vein and orbital sinus
what are the reasons for blood gases used to evaluate respiratory status, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the body, veins carry blood back to the heart for circulation to the lungs where O2 is picked up and CO2 is expelled
samples for blood gas analysis must remain anaerobic because exposure to air will alter the lab values obtained
arteries most used in horses are facial, transverse facial, carotid and metstarsal
arteries most used in camelid the ear artery
arteries most used in bovine, ovine and caprine include the transverse facial, carotid, auricular and the dorsal metatarsal.
Created by: tnewhouse