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Final Exam APHG

Tobins Final Exam Test

Acculturation Process of adopting only certain customs that will be to their advantage
Agglomeration - The clustering of similar or related firms in close proximity to one another
Apartheid Afrikaans for apartness, it was the segregation of blacks in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was created to keep the white minority in power and allow them to have almost total control over the black majority.
Baby Boom Generation individuals born in the US between 1946-1964, which was just after WWII; relative peace and prosperity allowed for better education and job opportunities
What are the six types of boundaries 1. Physical 2. Geometric 3. Subsequent 4. Antecedent 5. Superimposed 6. Relic
Physical Boundary Follow important features in the natural landscape EX- Mountains, Rivers and etc.
Geometric Boundary They follow straight lines and have little to do with the natural or cultural landscape, and some are marked with well- defined landmarks Ex- Wall between Tijuana and Mexico
Subsequent Boundary Drawn after a population has established itself and respect existing spatial patterns of certain social, cultural, and ethnic group
Antecedent Boundary when a boundary is given to a region before it is populated and carries little significance until the area becomes more populated Ex- United States and Canada
Superimposed boundary Drawn after a population has been settled in an area and do not pay much attention to the social, cultural , and ethnic composition of the populations they divide Ex- These types of boundaries prevailed in Africa during colonialism
Relic Boundary A national border that no longer exists, but has left some imprint on the local cultural or environmental geography
Brain Drain The emigration of highly educated workers from developing countries to developed countries
Buddhism the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
What are the branches of Buddhism? 1 Mahayana 2 Theravada 3 Vajrayana
Buddhism includes ______ _______ truths, as well as the _______ path. Four Noble, Eight Fol
In what areas is Buddhism Prominent? Southeast Asia, China, Japan
Who was the founder of Buddhism? Siddhartha Gautama
Bulk Gaining Assemble products whose weight is greater after assembly than it was in its constituent parts
Bulk Reducing Th final product weighs less than its constituent parts
Cartography The study of Map Making
Capitalist World Economy profit-oriented global economy based on production for sale
Concentric Zone Model created by E.W. Burgess, city grows outwards from a central area CBD in middle, then zone of transition, then zone of workers’ homes, then zone of residences, then commuter’s zone)
Creolized Language a language that results from the mixing of the colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated
Cohort Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids. This is important because this can tell what state this country it is whether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model.
European Union an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members -Economic
Folk Culture Culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogenous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Footloose Industries Industry in which the cost of transporting both raw materials and finished product is not important for the location of firms.
Forward Capital A forward capital is a symbolically relocated capital city usually because of either economic or strategic reasons. A forward capital is sometimes used to integrate outlying parts of a country into the state EX- Brasília
What are the Four Tigers 1 South Korea (largest), 2 Taiwan (moving towards high tech), 3 Singapore (Center for information and technology), 4 Hong Kong(Break of Bulk Point); because of their booming economies.
Genration X coined by artist and author Douglas Coupland; born between 1965-1980; post baby boom era; will have to support the baby boomers as they lead into retirement
GerryMandering process of redrawing legislative boundaries for the purpose of benefiting the political party in power. The process is usually used to turn “too close to call” states into a party’s favor.
Green Revolution Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizer. Because of Green Revolution, agricultural productivity at a global scale has increased faster than the population.
Heartland Theory Hypothesis proposed by Halford Mckinder that held that any political power based in the heart of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world
Immigration Waves Phenomenon whereby different patterns of chain migration build upon one another to create a swell in migration from one origin to the same destination.
Industrial Revolution A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.
Isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature (i.e. pronunciation)
Language Families a group of languages related by descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family
Lingua Franca a common language used by speakers of different languages
Mercator Projection rectangular map, direction consistent, shape slightly distorted, poles are grossly distorted
Robinson Projection A map that curves inward to fix the distortion of the Mercator, but makes the landmasses look smaller than they really are. It is an attempt to balance all distortions by making errors in all 4 ways. As a result, it is a good projection for general use
Peters Projection More fairly shows the third world countries. Countries shapes are distorted, but area is accurate
Microstate states that are small in size
Mediterranean agriculture Farming in the land surrounding the Mediterranean.Growing fruits, vegetables, flowers, and tree crops are the main crops, while animals are grown under transhumance – kept on coastal plains in winter and moved to hills in the summer.
Multiple Nuclei Model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities. -Created by: Harris and Ullman
NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) Allows open trade between the US, Mexico, and Canada. - Economic
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) -Military purposes -an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Nationalism is loyalty and devotion to a particular nationality.
Nation-State A state whose territory corresponds to that occupied by a particular ethnicitity that has been transformed into a nationality
Neolithic Revolution The shift from hunting animals and gathering food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food (8,000 BC).
OAS (Organization of American States) international organization that promotes peace and economic progress in the Americas
OPEC -Economic
Organic Food The return to farming without pesticides; allows small farmers in core countries to compete with agribusiness. When fair trade laws are applied, organic farming in peripheral and semi-peripheral countries can bring wealth into a country by exporting to w
Pidgin form of speech that adopts a simplified grammar and limited vocab of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of different languages
Plantation Farming Agriculture performed on a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
Population Density A measurement of the number of people per given unit of land.
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Primate City A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Rank Size Rule A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
Formal Region an area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional Region an area organized around a node or focal point
Vernacular Region a place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity
Rimland Theory Nicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest
Sector model A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD). Created By: Hoyt
second agricultural Revolution dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Shintoism Religion located in Japan that focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Site physical characteristics of a place (ex. climate, water bodies, topography, soil, vegetation, elevation)
Situation location of a place on Earth relative to other places (good for unfamiliar places through reference to familiar ones)
Compact State the distance from the center to any boundary does not vary significantly
Elongated State states with a long, narrow shape
Fragmented State includes several discontinuous pieces of territory
Perforated State a state that completely surrounds another
Prorurupted State for resources (congo-water) or to separate two states (namibia's caprivi strip-british colonies) (afghanistan-separate russia and pakistan)
Shifting Agriculture A form of subsistance agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to the other; each field is used for crops for a relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Sovereignty Self Governing State
Space-Time Compression reduction in the time it takes to diffuse something to a distant place, as a result of improved communications and transportation systems
Stateless nation A nationality that is not represented by a state.
subsistence farming Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family.
supranationalism an alliance involving 3 or more countries for their mutual benefit such as economic, cultural or political/ military.
Truck farming Definition: Commercial gardening and fruit farming, so named because truck was a Middle English word meaning bartering or the exchange of commodities. Example: Crops may now be transported a lot further than previously done.
Alfred Weber formulated a theory of industrial location: an industry is located where the transportation costs of raw materials and final product is a minimum.
Primary Activity economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment; such as mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Activity economic activity involving the processing of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Tertiary Activity economic activity associated with the provision fo services (transportation, banking, retailing, education, routine, office-based jobs)
Louis Wirth Believed that what sets cities apart from rural areas are their large size, high density, and social heterogeneity
Von Thunen Model shows all agricultural products and the importance of their proximity to their marketplace
1st Tier World Cities London, New York, Tokyo
2nd Tier World Cities Chicago, Los Angeles, Washington, Brussels, Frankfurt, Paris, Zurich, Sao Paulo, and Singapore
3rd Tier World Cities Bangkok, Bombay, Hong Kong, Manila, Osaka, Seoul, Taipei, Buenos Aires, Caracas, Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro, and Johannesburg
Created by: 100000528356700
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