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Stack #1599675

World History Exam Review

Question/Term/PersonAnswer/Definition
Assembly line A new method of production in which workers add parts to a product that moves along a belt from one work station to the next
Social Darwinism Ideas that thinkers used to support their own beliefs about society
Impressionism A style of painting of the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions
Corporation Businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
Suffrage The right to vote
Henry Bessemer A British engineer who developed a process to purify iron and produce a new substance, steel
Louis Pasteur A French chemist who made other major contributions, including the development of vaccines against rabies and anthrax and the discovery of a process called pasteurization, named after him for killing disease-carrying microbes in milk
Louis Sullivan An American architect who pioneered a new structure, the skyscraper
John Dalton The English Quaker schoolteacher who developed modern atomic theory
Charles Dickens The English novelist who vividly portrayed the lives of slum dwellers and factory workers, including children – In Oliver Twist, he told the story of a nine-year-old orphan raised in a grim poor-house
Anarchist A person who wants to abolish all government
Refugee A person who flees elsewhere to live in a different country
Zemstvo An elected assembly
Realpolitik Realistic politics based on the needs of the state
Pogrom A violent mob attack on Jews
Alexander II A king who set up a system for local government and emancipation
Otto von Bismarck Chancellor of the new German empire who pursued several foreign-policy goals – he wanted to keep France weak and isolated while building a strong alliances with Austria and Russia
Francis Joseph Inherited the throne at age eighteen – he ruled until 1916
Giuseppe Garibaldi A long-time nationalist and an ally of Mazzini who wanted to create an Italian republic
William II A kaiser who shocked Europe by asking Bismarck to resign - William II was Bismarck’s replacement and he started ruling for the government
Militarism The glorification of the military
Mobilize To prepare military forces for war
Propaganda The spreading of ideas to promote a cause or to damage an opposing cause
Reparation Payment for war damage
Ultimmatum Final set of demands
Atrocities Horrible acts against innocent people
Mandates Territories administered by western powers
Neutrality A policy of supporting neither side in a war
Total war The channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort
Georges Clemenceau The French leader who bore the nickname “the Tiger” for his fierce anti-German war policy – his chief goal was to weaken Germany so that it could never threaten France again
Francis Ferdinand The archduke who ignored warnings of anti-Austrian unrest in Sarajevo. On June 28, 1914 he and his wife Sophie rode through Sarajevo in an open car. Several Black Hand conspirators were stationed along the route. One of the conspirators hurled a bomb
but it missed the archduke and injured another officer Later Francis asked to to visit the officer in the hospital
In the car on the way there, one of the conspirators, Gavrilo Princip, armed with a gun, fired twice in the backseat. Seconds later the archduke and his wife were dead
Kaiser William II William II became kaiser after Bismarck surrendered to rule for the government
militarism The glorification of the military
reparation Payment for war damage
ultimatum Final set of demands
Bertha von Suttner The daughter of a noble Austrian military family who wrote a best-selling anti-war novel and organized a peace society. She earned the nickname “Peace Bertha” for her tireless work
Woodrow Wilson President who Insisted that Americans, as citizens of a neutral country had a right to safe travel on the seas. In April 1917, he asked Congress to declare war on Germany
Woodrow Wilson President who Insisted that Americans, as citizens of a neutral country had a right to safe travel on the seas. In April 1917, he asked Congress to declare war on Germany
collective A large farm owned and operated by peasants as a group
kulak A wealthy peasant
socialist realism A style that Stalin forced artists to conform to. Its goal was to boost socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light
soviets Councils of workers and soldiers
totalitarian state A form of government in which a one-party dictatorship attempts to regulate every aspect of the lives of its citizens
V.I. Lenin Adopted the New Economic Policy (NEP). It allowed some capitalist ventures. Even though the state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit
Osip Mandelstam The Jewish poet who was imprisoned, tortured, and exiled for composing a satirical verse that was critical of Stalin.
Nicholas II The czar who called on his people to fight for “the Faith, the Czar, and the Fatherland.” But, despite their efforts, the Russians suffered one humiliating defeat after another
Gregory Rasputin An illiterate peasant and self-proclaimed “holy man” who Alexandra relied on. The czarina believed in his “miraculous” powers after he helped ease her son who suffered from hemophilia
Joseph Stalin Propaganda mills described him as a devoted father of the Soviet people. He turned the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state
command economy A system in which government officials made all basic economic decisions
Anna Akhmatova One of Russia’s greatest poets who could not publish her work because she violated state guidelines
Leon Trotsky A Marxist revolutionist who promised “Peace, Land, and Bread.”
Mikhall Sholokhov A Soviet writer who wrote And Quiet Flows the Don. The novel told the story of a man who spent years fighting in World War I, the Russian Revolution, and the civil war. He later became one of the few Soviet writers to win the Nobel Prize for literature
Russian revolution of 1905 In the months that followed Bloody Sunday, discontent exploded across Russia. Strikes multiplied. In some cities, workers took over local government. In the countryside, peasants revolted and demanded land.
Military nationalities called for autonomy from Russia Terrorists targeted officials, and some assassins were cheered as heroes by discontented Russians. At last the clamor grew so great that Nicholas was forced to sweeping reforms
In the October Manifesto he promised, “freedom of person, conscience, speech, assembly, and union.” He agreed to summon a Duma, an elected national legislature. No law, he declared, would go into effect without approval by the Duma
The manifesto won over moderates, leaving socialists isolated. These divisions helped the czar, who had no intention of letting strikers, revolutionaries, and rebellious peasants challenge him
In 1906, the first Duma met, but the czar quickly dissolved it when leaders criticized the government.
Nicholas then appointed a new prime minister, Peter Stolypin.
Arrests, pogroms, and executions followed as the conservative Stolypin sought to restore order. Stolypin soon realized that Russia needed reform, not just repression. To regain peasant support, he introduced moderate land reforms.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk A treaty that Russia signed in March 1918, giving up a huge chunk of its territories and its population.
Where did the poor live in 19th century Europe? They lived in Britain.
Provide a detailed description of the middle class in industrial Europe. Its highest rungs were filled with midlevel business people and professionals such as doctors, scientists, and lawyers.
What was Charles Darwin’s theory and why was it so controversial? His theory was evolution. Some Christians came to accept the idea of evolution, but other Christians did not. They believed that the Bible contained the true account of creation. It told how God created the world and all forms of life in six days.
What was Joseph Lister’s medical breakthrough? He introduced sterile surgery and used aseptic
What new weapons were used in WWI? An automatic machine gun, a tank, a submarine, an airplane, poison gas, and a gas mask.
Describe William II’s foreign policy in Germany. He provided social welfare services, and he expanded the military.
What was the Triple Alliance? The military alliance among Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.
What role did women play in WWI? Women cared for the wounded and they served as nurses, both at home and France.
Created by: 100006302139264