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Chapter 28

appeasement to give into aggressive demands in order to maintain peace
Winston Churchill prime minister of Great Britain
Axis Powers the military alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan
nonaggression pact when countries agree not to attack each other
blitzkrieg german for "lightning war"
Allies Originally, Britain and France. Americans joined the Allies after the invasion of Pearl Harbor.
Battle of Britain conflict in which new technology called radar allowed the British to detect German air attacks
Hideki Tojo Japanese military leader
isolationism a desire to stay out of the affairs with other nations
Erwin Rommel German General. Led the Afrika Korps, Italian and German combined force in Africa. Nicknamed "The Desert Fox" for skillfully pusing the British out of Libya and back to Egypt.
Battle of El Alamein British victory over Afrika Korps in Egypt. British troops used information from secret German codes, and taking advantage of German supply problems, General Montgomery had a major victory
Dwight D. Eisenhower American. General. Led combined American/British force. Landed in North Africa in 1942. Used a pincher formation to further disrupt German supply lines --> Rommel's surrender in May 1943
Siege of Leningrad German siege of Leningrad during winter 1941-1942 --> Soviet civilians dying at a rate of 3-4K/day.
Battle of Stalingrad Stalingrad = large industrial/military city. Hitler ordered a mixed army (Germany, Italy, Romania, and Hungary) to take the city. Stalin wanted to hold the city at all costs. Brutal battle, over 1 mil Soviet soldiers died.
Douglas MacArthur American. General. Lead US Army against the Japanese in the Philippines --> Bataan Death March.
Bataan Death March When the Japanese forced 70,000 US and Filipino prisoners to march up the Bataan Peninsula to a prison camp. Prisoners faced tropical heat, lack of food and water, and brutal violence from the Japanese.
Battle of Midway Americans and Japanese fought in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. Americans won due to the discovery of Japanese radio code. American defense lead by Chester Nimitz.
Battle of Guadalcanal Allied invasion of island near Australia against Japan in pursuit of the island hopping strategy. Ended badly. Japanese victory in 1943
kamikazes Japanese pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and sacrified themselves to crash into Allied ships; suicide bombers who considered their death a noble sacrifice for their country.
deported To be forced to leave a country.
Final Solution The deliberate mass execution of Jews --> confinement in ghettos, sent to labor camps, mass slaughter using mobile killing units, death camps = Holocaust.
ghetto A confined area within a city, used in the Holocaust to prevent Jews from leaving.
concentration camps A camp meant to hold the people Hitler called "the enemies of the state."
Holocaust Genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of the Nazis; over 6 million Jews died.
D-Day June 6, 1944. Lead by Generals Marshall and Eisenhower. Allied forces invaded France on the beaches of Normandy against German forces. A victory for the Allies
V-E Day May 7, 1945. Victory in Europe Day. Germany surrendered ending the war in Europe.
Battle of Iwo Jima Japanese island. 7K Americans died capturing the island. Over 19K Japanese died defending the island
Battle of Okinawa Americans invaded Okinawa. 12K Americans were killed. The Japanese lost. 100K defenders of Japan were killed.
Harry S Truman President of the U.S. after Franklin Roosevelt died. Made the decision to use atomic weapons against the Japanese, hoped use of the weapon would lead to Japanese surrender. Bombed Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. Bombed Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
Hirohito Japanese emperor during WWII
V-J Day August 15, 1945. Victory in Japan Day, when Emperor Hirohito surrendered ending WWII.
Yalta Conference To reach agreement on what to do with post-war Europe. Roosevelt, Stalin, and Churchill agreed on dealing with Germany. Stalin kept property that used to belong to Poland.
United Nations Designed to encourage international cooperation and to prevent war. US, GB, France, Soviet Union, and China formed the UN Security Council and had more power than other nations.
Potsdam Conference July 1945. Growing problems between Soviet Union and other Allies, had problems reaching agreements.
Created by: lcs1340020