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Reif: Global 9

1: Vocab for Global 9

TermDefinition
95 Theses Document written by Martin Luther detailing what he believed to be the problems in the medieval Church.
Age of Exploration Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans
Alexander the Great He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
Animism Believe that everything in the universe has a spirit. This belief resulted in ancestor worship as a means of communicating with and showing respect to ancestors.
Aryans Migrated from Central Asia into India around 1500 BCE. They are responsible for many aspects of current Indian culture including their language, sacred texts called the Vedas, and a system of government that later evolved into the caste system.
Aztecs A Mesoamerican civilization of Mexico who created a strong empire that flourished between the 14th and 15th century. The arrival of Hernando Cortez and the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire.
Brahma Hindu god called the Creator. Brahma is the first member of the triad that includes Vishnu the Preserver and Shiva the Destroyer.
Brahman In Hinduism, Brahman is the name given to the oneness of the universe.
Bubonic plague An infectious disease transmitted by fleas. It is characterized by fever, chills, and the formation of swellings. Also known as the Black Plague or Black Death.
Buddha Hindu for “enlightened one." See also Siddhartha Gautama.
Buddhism Buddhism developed in India, and is based on concepts of Hinduism; believe in an endless cycle of reincarnation; Reject the Caste System
Bushido Code of conduct for Samurai and nobles during Japanese feudalism.
Byzantine Empire The eastern half of the Roman Empire, which survived after the fall of the Western Empire at the end of the 5th century C.E. Its capital was Constantinople, named after the Emperor Constantine.
Caste System A rigid social class system in Hinduism.
Christianity Most popular religion in the world; Monotheistic religion developed from Judaism, there are several key differences in its teachings. Christianity was founded by Jesus Christ in the 1st century CE. The Christian holy book is called the Holy Bible.
Christopher Columbus Italian explorer working for Spain who, in 1492, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the Americas for Spain.
Civil service exam In China, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the bureaucracy.
Columbian Exchange The exchange of goods and other things, such as disease from the Old World (Europe) to the new World (North and South America) and back
Confucianism Confucius lived in China a warring period.He believed that the only cure was to stress social order Confucianism teaches that there is a natural social order to society which can best be explained through the Five Relationships.
Confucius Chinese philosopher and writer of The Analects, a collection of moral and social teachings, including the concept of the Five Relationships. Also known as Kong Fu Zi.
Conquistadors Spanish conquerors who came to the New World in search of gold and other riches.
Constantine (274 CE – 337 CE) Roman Emperor between 306 CE and 337 CE. He issued the Edict of Milan which outlawed the persecution of Christians. He also founded the city of Constantinople, the future capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Hernando Cortes Spanish conquistador who was responsible for the conquest of the Aztec Empire and the claiming of much of Central America for the Spanish.
Creoles In colonial Latin America, American born Spanish gentry, They owned most of the land but were treated like second class citizens, and were denied political rights.
Crusades European Christian military expeditions made between the 11th and 13th centuries to retake the Middle Eastern Holy Lands occupied by the Muslims.
Cultural diffusion The spreading of ideas through contact such as trade or war.
Cuneiform One of the earliest forms of writing. It consisted of wedge shaped symbols usually imprinted in clay. Used throughout ancient Mesopotamia
Dharma The act of fulfilling one's duty in life. Associated with Hinduism and Buddhism.
Dynastic cycle New dynasty w/ good govt.; Began decline-led to abuse and corruption; Natural disasters & invasion showed that they had lost Mandate; Ppl rebel and a new dynasty takes over claiming the mandate
Eightfold Path Code of behavior for followers of Buddhism
Encomienda system A system of production in Spain’s New World possessions which granted permission to conquistadors to enslave as many people needed to work a plantation.
Ethnocentric A belief in the superiority of a certain ethnic group or race.
Excommunicate To exclude a Christian from receiving the Sacraments.
Ferdinand and Isabella During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Christian nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
Ferdinand Magellan First to circumnavigate the world
Feudalism A social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life.
Filial piety A part Confucianism where respect is paid to the parents.
Five Pillars of Islam Code of behavior for followers of Islam. Includes Charity, Daily Prayer, Profession of Faith, Fasting during Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca called the hajj.
Five Relationships Confucian philosophy about social order where everyone has a place and respect is paid to elders, parents, and the government. The relationships are, ruler to ruled, father to son, older brother to younger brother, husband to wife, friend to friend.
Four Noble Truths Siddhartha's Gautama philosophy of the nature of human suffering and its relation to desire is articulated by four statements.
Francisco Pizarro Spanish conquistador who was responsible for the conquest of the Incan Empire.
Gautama, Siddhartha Indian philosopher and the founder of Buddhism. Siddhartha was born into the Brahmin caste, and by all account led a luxurious lifestyle. However, he was troubled by the human misery that he saw around him everyday. Upon reflection, he deduced that desire
Genghis Khan One of the Mongol’s greatest leaders and founder of the Mongol Empire.
Ghana One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.
Golden age A time in a culture of high achievement in arts, literature, and science. Generally occurs in times of peace.
Gupta Dynasty Ruling family in India during its golden age. Responsible for many achievements including the concept of zero, decimals, vaccines and calculating the Earth's circumference
Johannes Gutenberg German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type.
Hajj The pilgrimage or holy journey to the city of Mecca
Hammurabis Code Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi of Babylonia in th mid 18th century BCE and placed on stones tablets for all to see.
Hellenistic Civilization Time period from the late 4th century BCE to the 1st century CE that was characterized by Greek achievement and a blending of Persian, Egyptian, Greek, and Indian cultures due to the empire of Alexander the Great.
Henry VIII King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation developing the Anglican Church
Hinduism A polytheistic religion in India. The goal is to reach moksha where the soul becomes on with Brahman. To do this one must be reincarnated in to the caste system depending on one's karma and dharma.
Holy Land Term given to lands in present day Israel that is significant to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
Inca A Mesoamerican civilization centered in the Andes Mts, Peru. The Achievements include an elaborate road system, architecture, and terrace farming. The arrival of the Spanish Conquistadores ended their empire in the 15th century.
Inflation The raising of prices on consumer goods due to an increase in the money supply.
Islam Worshippers of this monotheistic religion are known as Muslims. The holy book is called the Qur’an and they must follow the Five Pillars of Islam. Islam is currently the second most practiced religion in the world.
Jesus Christ Founder of Christianity. Considered by Christians to be the son of God and the Messiah. He is the central figure in the Christian Religion.
Judaism Oldest known monotheistic religion. teaching are the basis for Christianity and Islam. After the Hebrew exodus from Egypt, Moses went atop Mount Sinai and returned with the 10 Commandments.
Julius Caesar
Justinians Code A law code created by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian about 530 CE. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.
Karma Actions in this life resulting from the consequences of a previous life’s actions. Associated with Hinduism and Buddhism.
Koran Islamic holy book.
Kublai Khan Grandson of Genghis Khan and founder of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty in China.
Laws of the Twelve Tables A system of laws. Some of the features of this system include, men being equal under the law, having the right to face their accusers, and being considered innocent until proven guilty.
Machiavelli Italian historian, statesman, and political philosopher of the Renaissance. His greatest work is The Prince, a book of political advice to rulers in which he describes the methods that a prince should use to acquire and maintain political power. This book
Magna Carta A document granting rights to both the Church in England and the Nobility signed by King John in 1215. This is considered to be the beginnings of British democracy.
Mali One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert. Greatest ruler was Mansa Musa, who converted to Islam and made a famous pilgrimage.
Mandate of Heaven Divine right of rule in China.
Mansa Musa Emperor of the kingdom of Mali in Africa. He made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca and established trade routes to the Middle East.
Marco Polo Italian explorer and author. He made numerous trips to China and returned to Europe to write of his journeys. He is responsible for much of the knowledge exchanged between Europe and China during this time period.
Martin Luther Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences.
Mayans A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E
Mecca A city in Saudi Arabia where Muslims must make a pilgrimage at least once in their life.
Mestizos In colonial Latin America, Spanish/Native America who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
Middle Ages Time period in European history between the fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and the beginning of the Italian Renaissance in the early 15th century.
Middle Kingdom (China) Term that ancient China used to refer to themselves. The believed they were the center of the Earth, or the Middle Kingdom.
Mohammed Prophet of Allah; founder of Islam.
Moksha In Hinduism, it is the release from the cycle of reincarnation through unification with Brahma.
Monotheism The belief in one god or goddess.
Mosque A domed Islamic religious building.
Neolithic Age/Revolution New Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the development of agriculture and permanent settlements.
New Testament The second half of the Christian Bible. It describes the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, as well as other Christian teachings.
Nirvana In Buddhism, spiritual enlightenment.
Old Testament The first half of the Christian Bible, that describes the creation of the world, the history of ancient Israel, the Ten Commandments, and contains the Psalms and the prophetic books. Also is the Hebrew Torah.
Orthodox Christianity A branch of Christianity developed in the Byzantine Empire, after its split from the Roman Empire. It spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean and Russia.
Ottoman Empire Hereditary nation state centered in Turkey. It was founded in the late 13th century after the collapse of the Byzantine Empire and extended across most of Asia Minor and the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire collapsed shortly after World War II.
Paleolithic Age Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source.
Parthenon A large temple dedicated to the goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens, Greece. It was built in the 5th century BCE, during the Athenian golden age.
Pax Romana A 200 hundred year period of relative peace throughout the Roman Empire. Occurs during the first two centuries C.E..
Peninsulares In colonial Latin America, Spanish official sent to govern Latin American colonies. They controlled government completely.
Phoenicians An early trading civilization located on east coast of Mediterranean. They produced various products, such as glass, papyrus scrolls using a phonetic alphabet, and dyes, and established trade across the entire Mediterranean Sea.
Polytheism The belief in many gods or goddesses.
Protestant Member of Christian relgious sect which formed during the Protestant Reformation. Protestants reject the authority of the Roman Catholic Church.
Ramadan The ninth month of the Muslim calendar. All Muslims must fast during daylight hours, except the very young or sick.
Reconquista The re-conquest of Spain by the Christians after centuries of Islamic domination.
Reformation The protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church during the early 16th century. Main leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin.
Renaissance A rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits after the stagnation of the Middle Ages. This period in European history, from about the 14th through 16th centuries, features major cultural and artistic change.
Republic A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature.
Roman Catholic A branch of Christianity based in Rome. The original Christian church.
Roman Empire The territories ruled by ancient Rome which at one time encompassed most of the Mediterranean world and parts of France, England, and Germany. The empire lasted from 27 BCE to 395 CE.
Samurai Warrior class during Japan’s feudal age.
Seppuku The act of suicide practiced by Japanese Samurai and Nobles during the feudal period. It was practiced to save one’s honor, or to regain it in the face of shame.
Shinto The traditional religion of Japan that focuses on nature. Every natural object has a spirit or kami, which inhabit them. Reverence is paid to the ancestors through the practice of ancestor worship.
Shogun Military ruler of feudal Japan.
Silk Road Trade route from China to the Middle East. Called the Silk Road due to China’s most important export.
Slave trade The buying and selling of people for the purposes of slavery.
Songhai One of the west African Trading Kingdoms. They were rich in gold and established a vast trading network across the Sahara desert.
Tokugawa Shogunate Feudal Warlord rulers of Japan. Responsible for closing Japan off from the rest of the world. Overthrown during the Meiji Restoration.
Traditional economy An economy based on agriculture, with others in society working in simple crafts, such as the manufacturing of cloth or pottery.
Triangle Trade A catch all phrase for the trade occurring between Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Trade goods include raw materials from the Americas, manufactured goods from Europe, and slaves from Africa.
Untouchables Lowest class of Hindu society due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is reserved for these Outcasts. The Indian constitution abolished untouchability.
Vedas A Hindu holy book which is a collection of Aryan hymns that were transmitted orally before being written down in the 6th century BCE.
Zheng He Chinese naval explorer who sailed along most of the coast of Asia, Japan, and half way down the east coast of Africa before his death.
Created by: SReif