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Hon. World History

Old Stone Age -period of time before agriculture, overlaps of prehistory (time before writing)-people lived as nomads, wandering in search of food
New Stone Age -began when people learned to farm-led to the developement of settling villages, a more stable food supply, and the domestication of animals
Fertile Cresent -known as the "crossroads of the world"-no barriers to invasions causing frequent wars-lack of barriers allowed for cultural diffusion as many groups of people migrated and settled here
Nile River -floods predictability-worshipped by ancient Egyptians-provided a source of water that made agriculture possible
Isrealites -lived in the ancient middle east-first people to be monotheistic
Mandate of Heaven -from ancient China, the idea that a ruler received power from the gods-subjects could rebel if a ruler failed to provide good gov.
Hammurabi's Code -first written code of laws-Based on the principle "an eye for an eye"-Used harsh punishments and treated people differently based on social class
Peloponnesian Wars -Long Range Cause: some city-states resented Athenian dominance after the Persian Wars
Democracy in Athens -Athens in the birthplace of democracy-Direct: all citizens voted on issues-Limited: only the minority qualified as citizens
Greek Sculptures Showed perfect or ideal human forms
Greek Philosophers -used reason and logic to understand the universe-influence Western civilizations with their ideas
Parthenon -Temple built in Athens-Shows important elements of Greek architecture such as balance and simplicity
Alexander the Great -conquered a large empire that included the Greek city-states-after his death the empire collapsed but Greek culture spread
Greek Geography -Mountains caused isolation and development of independent city states
Oligarchy -form of gov. where the power is in the hands of a small number of people-Sparta had this type of gov.
Herodotus -Wrote the first history "A history of the Persians wars"
Thucydides improved on Herodotus methods and wrote "A History of the Peloponnese Wars"
Persian Wars -Took place before Peloponnese Wars-The Greeks were outnumbered by the Persians but defeated them-The wars were won by the Greeks largely because of the Athenian naval victory @ Salamis
Aristotle -Greek philosophers who was taught by Plato-Teacher of Alexander the Great-Established a school called Lyceum
Plato -Taught Socrates-Established a school called the Academy
Old Stone age people moved from place to place in order to find.... fertile farmland
Long period of time before the invention of writing prehistory
What happened to make the New Stone Age begin people learned how to control fire
The Fertile Crescent has been the crossroads of the world because...... it was the place where many different people migrated invaded or settled
Archaeology is the study of human life and culture through the analysis of artifacts and fossils. True or False. False
"If the Nile smiles the earth is joyous, every stomach is full of rejoicing." This quotation from an ancient Egyptian hymn that the Egyptians regarded the Nile as the...... geographic feature that made agriculture possible
The Chinese believed a ruler kept the Mandate of Heaven by..... governing wisely
Hammurabi Code was significant because..... it was the first written code of laws
According to the Dynasty Cycle how might the dynasty lose the Mandate of Heaven? when a ruler fails to provide a good government
The immediate cause of the Peolopennesian War was.. a dispute between Athens and Corinth
The long-range cause of the Peoloponnesian War was.... some Greek city states resented Athens dominance
What kind of democracy did Athens developed? direct, but limited democracy
Greek sculptures carved statues that.... showed perfect human form
Greek Pilosopher thought that a reason could be used to understand the universe
The Parthenon is an example of excellence in Greek...... architecture
The basic political unit in ancient Greece was the polis
What happened after Alexander's empire collapsed after his death? Greek culture spread
Why did Athens stay with their walled cities during the Pelopponesian War Pericles knew Athens could not defeat Sparta so he thought the wall could keep them out
Heroducus wrote was is considered to be the first history
At its height Alexander's empire extended as far as India
During the Persian War, the Greeks most decisive victory came from the navel battle of Salamis thanks to Athenian navy. True or False True
The Athenian leader that abolished slavery is.... Solon
Who was the unbiased historian author of history of the Peloponesian Wars Thucydides
Alexander the Great was indifferent towards his soldiers suffering and sacrifices. True or False False
Which came first: History of the Persian wars was written or History of the Pelopponesian wars was written History of the Persian Wars was written
Which came first: Aristotle found Lyceum or Plato found Academy Plato found the Academy
Which came first: Alexander conquors Egypt or Phillip conquors Greek city states Phillip conquers Greek city-states
Which came first: Start of Persian Wars or Parthenon built Start of the Persian Wars
Roman Art and Archetecture Copied Greek styles & was realistic and practical
Spread of Christianity -Christianity spread because its message was appealing to many people, especially the poor-the persecution of Christians by some emporors inspired new converts-Christianity offered a personal realationship woth God
Diocleation Divided the Roman Empire to try to solve its problems -Used policies of coercion and control to try to keep the Empire together
Cultural Influences on Rome The Romans copied aspects of Greek culture and adapted them
City of Rome The city looked wealthy and impressive but living conditions for most Romans were miserable
Caesar -Became dictator of Rome and extended citizenship to people in the provinces of Rome-His assassination marked the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire
Visigoths attacked the city of Rome in 410 AD the first time the city itself was attacked
Constantine like Diocletian used coercion and control to keep Rome together
Fall of Rome Cause by political, economic, and social problems that included a plague, invasions, and the division of the empire into the eastern and western half
Augustus First Roman emperor who came to power after a civil war following Caesar’s assassination
Persecution of Christians Some Roman Emperors persecuted Christians because they were seen as bad citizens for refusing to worship the emperor and the state gods
Rome's Laws Rome’s first code of laws was the Twelve Tables of Law-Roman Law was based on the idea that an individual is innocent until proven guilty
Punic Wars -Series of the three wars between Rome and Carthage, a city-state in North Africa-Rome won all three wars and established a pattern of responding to threats with increasing levels of force
Byzantine Empire after Justininian -the rise of Islam threatened the Byzantine Empire-Muslims attacked caused the emperor to request help form the pope leading to the Crusades
Fall of the Byzantine Empire -Sped up by the 4 Crusades which resulted in the looting of Constantinople-empire collapsed in 1453 after attacked by ottoman Turks
Early Middle Ages/ Dark Ages -Trade stopped-Population decreased-Kings were weak-Frequent wars and invasions
Treaty of Verdun divided Charlemagne's empire among his heirs
Medieval Town Life -crowded and dirty-there were opportunities in towns that did not exist on manors
Manoralism -Describes the economy of the Middle ages where people were peasants ties to the land they worked for nobles-manors were self-sufficient agricultural communities
Feudalism -refers to gov. of middle ages-developed cause in the absence of strong centralized gov. no point in protecting against invasions-localized form of gov. which was local lords where bound to the king weak kings-Complex cause obligations were not write down
Magna Carta -Signed by King John of England (1215)-limited power of english king
Estate-Generals -representative body in France, similar to parliament but not as powerful-has no power of taxation
Guilds -association of merchants and artisans in the same occupation-set standard of quality goods for the town-controls wages and prices
Commercial Capitalism economic system in which [people invest in trade and goods for profit
Motives of the Crusades Pope wanted reclaim Holy Land from the Seljuk Turks,heal the split between Eastern Orthodox Church&Roman Catholic Church,reduce feudal warfare,increase power&prestege of the Church-Crusaders were promised salvation,recieve land&riches,&wanted adventure
Effects of Crusades 1 Crusade Christians Capture Jerusalem but lost it-4 Crusade Christians loot Constantinople Muslims controlled the holy land trade increased intolerance increased Byzantine empire weakened Feudalism increased kings power
Hundred Years War -Fought between France and England-England won all early battles due to the long bow-By the end of the war the French had diven the English out of the country&the French king increased power-Contribute to the decline of feudalism cause knight were no more
Joan of Arc -Defeated the English at Orleans first major French victory in Hundred Years War-She was captured and executed by English& inspired French to keep fighting the English
Ferdinand and Isabella -Rules Spain who used the Inquisition to persecute Muslims and Jews-Increased (centralized) royal power
Black Death -Killed up to 1/3 of the population of Western Europe in late Middle Ages-Caused economic decline and decreased demand for food-Contribute to the end of feudalism
Babylonian Captivity -Time when the the pope resided in Avignon, France and was controlled by French king-Resulted in Church loosing authority
Great Schism -Time when two competing popes fought over who the true pope was-Resulted in church loosing authority
Canterbury Tales -ex. of vernacular literature-Written by Geoffrey chauncer
John Wycliffe -Said the Bible should be translated to English-Claimed the Bible not the pope was the real source of truth
Decline of Feudalism -occurred at the end of the middle ages kings increased power
Romanesque Archetecture -Influenced by Roman architecture-features included rounded arches and thick walls with few windows- used in 11 & 12 century
Gothic Archetecture Allowed for construction of taller cathedrals due to flying buttress- had pointed arches and large stain glass windows-used in the 11 & 12 century
Beginning of the Renaissance o Renaissance began in Italian city states because had money to support the arts
Renaissance Scholars • Saw themselves as intellectual equals with Greeks and romans & interested and studied in their works
Leonardo da Vinci • Painted Mona Lisa • Painted The Last Supper •Renaissance man had a wide-ranging of interests
Michelangelo • David- Marble Stature • Sistine Chapel-Pope asked him to paint it •Renaissance man with a wide-range of interests
Techniques of Renaissance Artists o Used perspective and oil paint for paintings to look realistic
Effects of the printing press • spread of ideas faster • lower cost of books • increased literacy
Diet of Augsburgs Fighting between Catholics and Protestants in the German states ended in the Peace of Augsburg (1555) which allowed German princes to choose between Lutheranism and Catholicism
Luther's Teachings 1.Faith alone ensures salvation rejects sacraments except Baptism and Eucharist 2.Bible is only source of religious truth 3.Church is a community of believers 4.Consubstantiation bread and wine they do not change they are symbols of Christ
Henry VIII • broke up with pope after pope didn't annul his marriage • Did not disagree with the catholic doctrine just wanted to control the church
The Prince • Machievelli wrote this book • Stated rulers should do whatever was necessary to keep power
Catholic Reformation • Church response to protestant reformation • Council of Trent did not change church teachings • Successful in slowing down the spread of Protestantism
Map of Europe after Protestant Reformation • There were more Protestantism area in northern Europe • Southern Europe stayed Catholic
Mercantilism -economic theory that states a nations's power is determined by its wealth of gold and silver-Goal is to become self-sufficient-Must export more than import-Gov. should regulate trade and set up colonies
Bart Dias -export for Portugal-reached southern tip of Africa
Vasco da Gama -explore for portugal-sailed around the tip of Africa and reached India
Middle Passage -term for the journey across the Atlantic Ocean for Africans that were taken as slaves
Native Population of Spain colonies -decline due to disease, enslavement, and abuse-disease was a primary reason for decline
Triangular Trade -raw material went west from America to Europe-Manufactured goods went from Europe to Africa and the Americas-Slaves were bought from Africas to Americas
Prince Henry -Established a school for navigators in Portugal
Columbus -sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabel of Spain-Sailed west across the Atlantic hoping to reach Asia but instead discovered the New World
Cortes -Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs in Mexico
Pizaro -Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas in Peru
Louis XIII/Cardinal Richeliu Richeliu served as Louis XIII advisor & he increased royal power in France by takking power away from nobles & huegonotes
Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV of France-Granted Huguenots the rights to worship in the areas were they were majority-Cancelled by Louis XIII
Louis XIV absolute monarch of France-known as the sun king-Said "I am the State
Thirty Years Wars -started when ferdinand tried to impose Catholocism on Czech Protestants & they rebelleed-Haspburgs hoped to use the war to unify the German states under their control as the Holy Roman Empire
Divine Right -theory that a ruler gets his power from God-used to support absolutw monarchy
Versailles -palace built by Louis XIV-Nobles lived there so Louis could keep an eye on them
Treaty of Westphilia -ended thirty years war-Added Calvinist to the list of religions German princes could choose for his land-Recognized inependance of 300 German states-Haspburgs didnt achieve goal of unifying Holy Roman Empire
Balance of Power no single nation should be dominated by Europe
James I -Belived his right to rule came from God-Quarrled with parliament over money, religion and foreign policy
Charles I followed james I & tried to rule as an absolute monarch causing the English civil war
Effects of the English civil war/commonwealth limited the power of the monarch
Thomas Hobbes -wrote Levianthan-believed absolute monarch was best form of gov.-believed that people gave up all the rights to the ruler; including right to rebel- had low opinion on uman nature and believed that people would constantly fight without strong gov.
John Locke -Wrote Two treaties of government-believed limited monarchy was the best form of gov.-Belived people were born with natural rightd of life, liberty, and property; these rights could not be given up or taken away-people had right to rebel if ruler was tyra
Montesquieu -believed that the power of gov. should be divided among 3 branches with check and balances to prevent one from being too powerful-Influences US constitution
Copernicus -first to propose that the sun not the earth was the center of the universe-Heliocentric Theory states the earth revolves around the sun and the earth rotates of its axis
Deism Religion influenced buy the Enlightenment and based of logic and reason
Romanticism -Romantic philosophers believed Enlightned philosophers based too much on logic and reason than instancet and emotion
Descartes Wrote "I think, therefore I am"-The only thing you can be sure of is your own existance
Salons Parties held by wealthy woman to share enlightment ideas
Estates-Genral, members, problems, and privalages First Estate was clergy: paid no taxes Second Estates was nobles: paid no taxes Third Estates: middles class, workers, peasents high tax burden and little power
Bastille -Paris mob stormed prison fortress symbol of old Regime -Showed people that supported Revolution change
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens -Adopted the national assembly-protected freedom of speech, religion and protected arbitrary arrest-Rights did not apply to woman
Constitution of 1791 -written by national assembly-established limited monarch
Louis XVI executed for treason by radicals during frech rev.
Napoleon's Coup -seized power by overthrowing the Directory-Became First Consul, then First Consul for Life, then Emporor
Napoleons Empire By 1812 Napolean had conquored all europe except England
Contenental System -Napoleans plan for economic warefare to destroy Britians economy-Forbade trade between Europe and Britian-hurt French ecomomy more than Britians
Napoleans defeat in Russia invaded Russia for violating continental system-French defeated by harsh Russian winter
Lasting Results of French Rev. -feudalism ended Monarch's power limited-Nationalism grew throughout Europe
Created by: sossenkopp