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World History Sem. 2

Prentis Hall World Connections to Today

TermDefinition
ideology systems of thoughts and beliefs
assembly line production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of small tasks
stock shares in a company
Proletariat working class
communism form of socialism advocated by Karl Marx. It would lead to a classless society in which all wealth and property would be owned by the community as a whole.
Karl Marx A German philosopher who started the idea of communism
Command Economy system in which government officials make all basic economic decisions
Totalitarian State A government in which a one party dictatorship regulates every aspect of citizen lives.
genocide an attempt to destroy an entire ethnic or religious group
Nationalization a takeover of property or resources by the government
apartheid a policy of strict racial separation in South Africa. It was abolished in 1989.
cultural nationalization pride in one's own culture
civil disobedience refusal to obey an unjust law
Mohandas Gandhi A philosopher from India who preached nonviolence and reverence for all living things
indulgence In the Roman Catholic Church, a pardon for sins committed during a lifetime.
Renaissance
Martin Luther
vernacular every day language of ordinary people
utopian an ideal society
predestination an idea that God long ago determined who will gain salvation
heliocentric based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Machiavelli
Reformation
mercantilism policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imports in order to build a supply of gold and silver
Atlantic Slave Trade Europeans viewed slaves from Africa as a valuable commodity.
Columbian Exchange an exchange of plants, animals, foods, etc. between Europe and the Americas
absolute monarchy A ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of people he/she governs
limited (constitutional) monarchy a government in which constitution or legislative body limits the power of the monarchs
divine right belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
natural laws a rule or law that governs human nature
social contract agreement by which people give up their freedom to a powerful government in order to avoid chaos
natural right the right that belongs to all humans from birth
Laissez-faire a policy allowing businesses to operate with little or no government interference
Oligarchy government in which ruling powers belong to a few people
popular sovereignty
Bourgeoisie middle class
faction a small group
suffrage a right to vote
nationalism a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
secular having to do with worldly, rather than religious matters
legitimacy principle by which monarchies that had been unseated by the French Revolution or Napoleon were restored
capital money or wealth
urbanization movement of people from rural areas to cities
socialism system in which the people as a whole rather than private individuals own all property and operate all businesses
women's suffrage women's right to vote
abdicate to give up a high office
cartel association of large corporations formed to fix prices, set production quotas, or divide up markets
standard of living measures the quality and availability of necessities and comforts in a society
realism artistic movement whose aim was present the world as it is
romanticism a 19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
impressionism a school of painting in the late 1800s and early 1900s that tried to capture fleeting visual impressions
protectorate countries with its own government but under the control of an outside power
causes of imperialism manufacturers expanded to outside markets, nations wanted to gain more territory, people (missionaries/doctors) wanted to spread blessing, medicine
trade deficit situation in which a country imports more than it exports
polygamy custom that allows men to have more than one wife
mulatto in Spain's colonies in the Americas, a person who was of African and European descent
Created by: gcowing