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BBC Pharm

Ch 46: Hallucinogens

lysergic acid diethylamide. potent hallucinogen. tolerance and physical dependence have occured in regular users, but true dependence is VERY RARE! activates SNS to cause arousal, tachycardia, sweating, mydriasis, high BP, alterations. LSD
at higher doses of LSD, what happens? schizophreniform (antipsyc, i.e. anti dopaminergic agents) psychosis of long duration may be triggered.
major side effects during the time of taking LSD? hyperreflexia, nausea, muscle weakness
therapeutically, this drug is used pharmacologically known as dronabinol. can result in tolerance and physical dependence if used on a continuous frequent basis. 9% of regular users become addicted. produces euphoria tha tis followed by drowsiness,relaxat THC
side effects of marijuana? increase apetitie, xerostomia, and if high enoungh concentrations, visual hallucinations and delusions, red conjunctiva, increased heart rate, decreased blood pressure, and a wide range of mental and psychiatric manifestations
clinical use of marijuana? severe emesis encountered during cancer chemotherapy and to stimulate hunger in anorexia associated with AIDS.
marijuana significantly increases the risk for... arrhythmias, because it increases heart rate, and has a four times increased rate of causing heart attacks, potential reduction in learning and memory. recurrent use, even if not chronic, has been demonstrated to permanently decrease IQ.
recurrent use of marijuana has shown.. even if not chronic, recurrent use has been demonstrated to measurably decrease learning potential for as long as several weeks after even a single use of marijuana. recurrent use can permanently decrease IQ.
may cause tolerance if used on a continual basis. causes dissociated anesthesia and arthralgia. the user also encounters numbness of extremities, staggered gait, slurred speech, and muscle rigidity. at higher doses, full anesthesia, stupor, or coma phencyclidine (angel dust)
reubtake inhibitor of dopamine 5HT (seratonin), and NE. also possesses strong anticholinergic activity but suprisingly, causes quite evident hypersalivation. person experiences mood elevation, a sense of intoxication, and all of the aforementioned sensati PCP
those who use PCP ar eparticularly prone to.. bizarre and often aggressive behavior that may even persist for upt o a week
considered to be in the same class as PCP in that it is an anesthetic agent and provides dissociative anesthesia. it is a non competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, thus blocking the activating effects of glutamate on the brain. ketamine
at higher doses, ketamine does what? binds to and activates opioid mu and sigma receptors, providing analgesia and loss of consciousness.
ketamine is a partial agonist of what receptor? D2. it is also a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, promoting hallucinations and psycotic behavior. it also inhibits hyperpolarization activated HCN1 channel sununits that normally work to modulate cation rcurrent in neurons; the result being cortical synchro
overall effect of ketamine profound effect on the hippocampal formatoin and the prefrontal cortex, resulting in sensory overload thta is reminisclent of that seen in schizophrenia and near death experiences. result is dissociativ eanesthesia, analgesia, bronchodilation, inc BP, CO
with ketamine, hallucinations only happen when.. .person is in hte dark and has their eyes closed. at higher doses, hallucinations become more intense and obvious.
chronic use of ketamine produces what? significant cognitive impairment with memory deficits. furthermore, it promotes ulceration of hte inner lining of the urinary bladder, resulting in hematuria, pelvic pain, and dysuria.
ketamine used medically as.. an anesthetic, and is the anesthetic of choice for trauma victims becuase of its effects on raising bloodp ressure.
Created by: aferdo01