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Reif: Global 10

1: Vocab for Global 10

“Blood and Iron” policy of Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck to unify all of Germany under Prussian control and build and expand it into a great empire. Very successful.
Absolute Monarchy A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch, who has absolute control.
Adam Smith (1723-1790) British philosopher, writer, and economist. His book, The Wealth of Nations, describes his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics..
Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) Austrian-born leader of Germany. He co-founded the Nazi Party in Germany, and gained control of the country as chancellor in 1933. Hitler started World War II with the invasion of Poland. He was responsible for the Holocaust.
African National Congress A group formed in protest of the policy of Apartheid in South Africa. It was eventually outlawed due to their violent tactics, and Nelson Mandela, one of its leaders, was imprisoned for over thirty years.
Agrarian Revolution A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food; Fueled by the use of new farming technology; One of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) American scientist best known for his theory of relativity and his contributions to the development of the atomic bomb.
Allied Powers Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
Amritsar Massacre British soldiers killed close to 400 unarmed Indians & wounded 1,100 more. People had gathered in the center of town to protest British & demand equality; Independence movements became very popular
Anwar al-Sadat (1918-1981) President of Egypt between 1970 and 1981. He was assassinated by Islamic fundamentalists for making peace with Israel.
Apartheid A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage.
Appeasement The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
Arab-Israeli Conflict Conflict over landownership in Israel/Palestine. This conflict has at times involved most of the nations of the Middle East as well as the US and the USSR. Widespread terrorism against Israel and its allies occurs because of this conflict.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand (1863-1914) Archduke of Austria, nephew to the Emperor. He was assainated by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia in 1914. This resulted in the start of World War I.
Axis Powers Alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan during World War II.
Ayatollah Khomeini Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989.
Balfour Declaration A promise made by British Prime Minister Balfour to create a homeland for the Jewish people.
Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) Enlightenment thinker who stated that government should divide itself according to its powers, creating a Judicial, Legislative, and Executive branch that way each branch would Check and Balance the others
Battle of Britain The massive air war against Great Britain by the Nazi war machine in Germany. Nearly nightly bombings occurred between summer of 1940 and summer of 1941 before German withdrew. Great Britain fought alone during this year and never gave up.
Bay of Pigs An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.
Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Italian leader. He founded the Italian Fascist Party, and sided with Hitler and Germany in World War II. In 1945 he was overthrown and assassinated by the Italian Resistance.
Berlin Airlift A re-supply operation to the city of Berlin that lasted 11 months during 1948-49 when the Soviet Union attempted to close off the city.
Berlin Conference European leaders met in Berlin to discuss plans for dividing Africa peacefully. These leaders had little regard for African independence, and had no representation for native Africans. Began the process of imperializing Africa.
Berlin Wall A wall built in 1961 dividing Soviet controlled East Berlin from the democratic West Berlin. It was destroyed when communism ended in 1990.
Black Hand Serbian nationalist/terrorist group responsible for the assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand which resulted in the start of World War I.
Blitzkrieg German word meaning lightning war. It was a German army tactic during World War II which called for quick moving, hard hitting drives into enemy territory.
Boer War (1899-1902) War between Great Britain and the Boers in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Bolshevik Early name of communists during the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Boris Yeltsin (1931- ) President of Russia. He was elected before the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. He served until 1999. Yeltsin was instrumental in keeping a cout d’etat from occurring which would have returned hard line communists to power in Russia.
Bourgeoisie Term given to the middle class people in society.
Boxer Rebellion (1900) A rebellion by the people of China to end foreign domination
British East India Company A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Bureaucracy The administration portion of the government.
Camillo Cavour (1810-61) Prime Minister of Sardinia, a large Italian State. He formed alliances with other foreign powers to help end Austria's and Spain's control. Instrumental in the unification of Italy.
Capitalism An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods. Also promotes a free market regulated by supply and demand.
Cash Crop Economy An economic system based on the exportation of certain crops such as sugar, cotton, and coffee.
Catherine the Great An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port.
Cecil Rhodes (1853-1902) British statesman who was instrumental in assuring British dominance of southern Africa.
Checks and Balances A system in government described by Baron de Montesquieu where legislative, judicial, and executive power is shared among the different branches to provide protection against abuses of power.
Chinese Communist Revolution A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Civil Disobedience The purposeful breaking of laws to protest actions by the government.
Cold War Non shooting conflict between the Soviet Union and their allies and the United States and their allies. Numerous secondary conflicts arise due to the Cold War.
Collective Farm A government owned farms where peasants work on a quota system.
Command Economy An economic system controlled by strong, centralized government, which usually focuses on industrial goods. With little attention paid to agriculture and consumer goods.
Commercial Revolution A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.
Commodore Matthew Perry (1794-1858) Commodore. United States Navy officer who is responsible for opening Japan to trade and imperialism.
Commonwealth of Independent States Nation created after the breakup of the Soviet Union. It includes Russia and several smaller former Soviet republics.
Commune A government owned farms where peasants work on a quota system.
Communism A system of government in which a single, totalitarian, party holds power. It is characterized by state control of the economy, and restriction on personal freedoms. It was first proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto.
Communist Revolution A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
Congress of Vienna Meeting of European leaders to reestablish borders after the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the fall of Napoleon. The Congress was held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815, and was dominated by Prince Metternich of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Constitutional monarchy A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch who has limited power due to a constitution
Containment A cold war policy that called for containing communism to areas already under its influence. This policy was proposed by U.S. President Harry Truman.
Copernicus (1473-1543) Polish astronomer who wrote On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres. Theorized that the Earth orbited the Sun (heliocentric system) and laid the foundations of modern astronomy.
Coup d’etat The acting of overthrowing a government in favor of another, usually through violent means.
Cuban Missile Crisis (1961)Developed as a result of Cuban dictator Fidel Castro’s allowing the USSR to put in Cuba. The US confronted the USSR demanding their removal. For nearly two weeks, nuclear war was imminent. Fortunately, diplomacy succeeded and crisis was averted.
Cuban Revolution (1958) A political revolution that removed the United States supported Fugencio Batista from power. The revolution was led by Fidel Castro who became the new leader of Cuba as a communist dictator.
Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) Started in China by Mao Zedong to eliminate his rivals and train a new generation in the revolutionary spirit that created communist China. The Cultural Revolution resulted in beatings, terror, mass jailings, and the deaths of thousands.
Declaration of the Rights of Man Revolutionary document of the French Revolution. Written in 1789, it spelled out certain rights believed to be universal to all mankind. Patterned on the American Declaration of Independence.
Democratic Republic A political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature.
Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997) Chinese Communist leader. Ruled from 1978 until 1997.
Diaspora The enforced spreading out of a group of people. In history, there has been both a Jewish Diaspora and an African Diaspora.
Dictatorship A system of government in which a country is ruled by a single person with absolute power.
Domino Theory The idea that countries bordering communist countries were in more danger of falling to communism unless the United States and other western nations worked to prevent it.
Dutch East Indies A group of islands in South East Asia claimed by the Dutch during Imperialism.
Enclosure Movement During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
English Bill of Rights (1689) A Bill of Rights written after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which placed William and Mary on the throne of England. The bill created a limited monarchy and established Parliament as the ruling body of the nation.
Enlightened Despots A monarch who retains absolute control of their country while also enacting reform based on Enlightenment ideas.
Enlightenment A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe.
Estates Class system in France before the French Revolution. There were three Estates, First Estate was Clergy, Second was Nobility, and Third was peasants, merchants, and townspeople.
Estates General The legislative body of France. Made up of 3 estates-Clergy, Nobles and peasants. Each Estate is entitled to one vote on legislative matters. The Estates General was never as strong as the British Parliament of the American Congress.
Ethnic Cleansing The removal of people of a specific ethnic group by means of genocide, terror, or forced expulsion (i.e. Holocaust)
European Union Economic union between countries in Europe for mutual gain. Originally formed in 1951 as the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), it later became the European Community in 1967, then the European Union in 1991.
Extraterritoriality A policy that guaranteed European citizens in China were only subject to the laws of their own nation and could only be tried by their own courts.
Fascism A system of government that promotes extreme nationalism, repression, anticommunism, and is ruled by a dictator.
Fidel Castro Leader of the Cuban Revolution and communist dictator of Cuba. He is responsible for making Cuba a socialist country which has often been at odds with the United States. Notably, the bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Five Year Plans Stalin's economic policy to rebuild the after WWII. Included massive industrialization and farm collectivization, where peasants lived collectively on government owned farms, often resulted in widespread famine as many peasants resisted this policy.
Four Modernizations An program that called for limited privatization of agriculture and industry, encouraged foreign investment and foreign trade, and resulted in a boost for the Chinese economy under Deng Xioaping
Fourteen Points President Woodrow Wilson’s plan at the end of World War I; Outlines the League of Nations and the ideas of self determination for different ethnic groups.
French Revolution Political revolution in France starting in 1789 that brought about many changes in France. The revolution ultimately ended with a dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte before his defeat by the combined powers of Europe.
Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973) Cuban president from 1940 to 1944 and 1952 to 1959; He was forced from office by Fidel Castro.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Italian astronomer. One of the founders of Europe's scientific revolution, one of his main contributions is the application of the telescope to astronomy. He was able to prove Copernicus’ heliocentric model correct.
Glasnost A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev which called for more openness with the nations of West, and a relaxing of restraints on Soviet citizenry.
Great Depression (1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world’s in 1929; Resulted in unemployment, homelessness & a decline in world trade.
Great Leap Forward The economic program designed to increase farm and industrial output though the creation of communes. Communes are similar to Soviet collectives in that groups of people live and work together on government owned farms and in government owned industry.
Great Purge The widespread arrests and executions of over a million people by Josef Stalin between 1936 and 1938. Stalin was attempting to eliminate all opposition to his rule of the Soviet Union.
Green Revolution Movement in the mid 20th c. that focused on reducing famine by using methods in agriculture such as irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides & high-yield seeds
Grigory Rasputin (1872-1916) Russian peasant and self-proclaimed holy man. He was friends with the ruling Romanov family, and sometime advisor to Czarina Alexandra. His advice was on of the factors leading to the Russian Revolution.
Guiseppe Garibaldi (1807-1882?) Military leader whose Red Shirt army liberated most of southern Italy, before conquering the northern section. He was instrumental in the unification of Italy.
Heliocentric Model Theory of the universe that states the sun is the center, and that the earth revolves around it.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki Japanese cities devastated during World War II when the United States dropped the first atomic bombs on Aug 6th, and August 9th, 1945.
Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) Vietnamese leader who is responsible for ousting first the French, then the United States from his country. Supported by both communist China and the Soviet Union, he guided Vietnam through decades long warfare to emerge as a communist nation.
Holocaust The attempted genocide of European Jews, Gypsies, mentally retarded, homosexuals, and others by Nazi Germany during the Second World War.
Humanism A philosophical movement during the Renaissance that stressed life on Earth, and the quality of being human. Rejected living only for the afterlife of Christianity.
Hutus and Tutsis Tribes in Rwanda responsible for decades of warfare.
Imperialism The complete control of a weaker nation’s social, economic, and political life by a stronger nation.
Indian National Congress Nationalistic organization in India with the purpose of ending British control. Prominent members include Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru.
Industrial Revolution Late 1800s- change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines and factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the United States.
Industrialization The change to industrial methods of production such as the use of factories.
Iron Curtain A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union’s policy of isolation during the Cold War. The Iron Curtain isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world. Its most poignant symbol was the Berlin Wall.
Isaac Newton (1642-1727) English scientist who discovered gravitation, invented calculus, and formulated the laws of motion.
Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) Indian nationalist leader and the first prime minister of independent India from 1947 to 1964. Along with Mohandas Gandhi, he was instrumental in freeing India from Britain’s control.
Jean Jacques Rousseau - (1712-1778) Wrote The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the cause of most problems; Govt should be run according to the will of the majority
Jiang Jieshi/Chang Kai Shek. (1887-1975) Leader of the Guomindang, or Nationalist Party in China. He lost control of China in 1949, and fled to Taiwan where he setup a rival government.
John Locke (1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights.
José de San Martín (1778-1850) Latin American revolutionary. He is one of the main leaders of the Latin American independence movement.
Josef Stalin (1879-1953) The General Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party from 1922 until 1953. Known for his brutality in dealing with opponents and his failed policies of collectivism that caused widespread famine across the Soviet Union.
Joseph II The son of Maria Teresa and a enlightened despot who ruled over the Austrian Empire.
Karl Marx (1818-1883), German political philosopher and writer. Coauthor with Friedrich Engels of The Communist Manifesto which described the new philosophy of scientific socialism, which is the basis for modern communism.
Khmer Rouge Communist guerrillas in Cambodia led by Pol Pot, that gained control after the withdrawal of American troops from the Vietnam War; Initiated a reign of terror, killing over a million people to remove all western influence from the country.
Korean War A war between North Korean, which was supported by both the Soviet Union and communist China, and South Korea, which was supported by the United States and the United Nations; Ended in an armistice at original borders.
Kristallnacht On November 9th, 1938, Nazis in German looted, and burned Jewish stores and Synagogues, often beating Jews in the street. Over 90 Jews were killed during Kristallnacht. Also called Night of Broken Glass.
Kuomintang Nationalist Party in China led by Jiang Jieshi, which began a war against the Communist Party led by Mao Zedong. Both fought for control of China, with Mao and the Communists ultimately winning in 1949.
Laissez-Faire Economics This was an economic philosophy begun by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations, that stated that business and the economy would run best with no interference from the government. This economic system dominated most of the Industrial Revolution.
League of Nations A multinational peace keeping organization which began as an idea by Woodrow Wilson following WWI and was part if the Treaty of Versailles; The US did not join & did little to keep peace between the wars with no military.
Lech Walesa (1943- ) Polish labor union leader, Nobel laureate, and President of Poland from 1990 to 1995. He was instrumental in the collapse of communism in Poland and throughout Eastern Europe through the work of the labor union Solidarity.
Little Red Book A book circulated throughout China during the reign of Mao Zedong, which contained his political philosophy for China. It was required reading in all schools.
Long March March the Mao Zedong and his Communist Party underwent to avoid being captured and killed by China’s Nationalist Party.
Louis XIV (1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles.
Louis XVI (1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded.
Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Leader of the Communist Party in China that overthrew the Nationalists. Established China as the People’s Republic of China and ruled from 1949 until 1976; Instituted 5 Yr Plans, Great Leap Forward and Cultural rev.
Marie Curie French scientists and husband and wife. They are best known for their work in the field of radioactivity.
Market Economy An economy based on free trade and supply and demand.
Marshall Plan Economic aid from the United States used to rebuild Europe after World War II. Named after United States Secretary of State George Marshall.
Meiji Restoration The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
Mercantilism The policy of building a nation's wealth by exporting more goods than it imports; Colonies served as a source for the raw materials, but also as an exclusive market for the parent country.
Mexican Revolution (1910 – 1920) A political revolution that removed dictator Porfirio Diaz, and hoped to institute democratic reforms. While a constitution was written in 1917, it was many more years until true change occurred.
Mikhail Gorbachev (1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism.
Militarism Political policy that is dominated by the military and the competitive buildup of arms.
Mixed Economy An economic system which is a combination of Market and Command economic systems where market forces control most consumer goods, but government directs industry in need areas.
Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) Nationalist leader in India, who called for a non violent revolution to gain his country’s freedom from the British Empire.
Monarchy A political system in which a country is ruled by a monarch.
Monroe Doctrine (1823) A political policy of the United States by President James Monroe that states the Western Hemisphere is closed to European interference.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk (1881-1938) Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers.
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement, an economic treaty between Canada, the United States, and Mexico to lower tariffs and create a free trade environment. NAFTA was ratified by its member nations in 1994.
Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) Emperor of the French. Responsible for many French Revolution reforms as well as conquering most of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo, and died several years later on the island of Saint Helena.
National Assembly First new government during the first stage of the French Revolution.
Nationalism love for one’s country
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization, an international defense alliance between the United States, Great Britain, and others formed in 1949 as a response to the spread of communism.
Nazi Name of German National Socialist Party, which gained control of Germany in 1933 under the leadership of Adolf Hitler.
Nelson Mandela (1918 - )A black South African leader who protested the policy of Apartheid and spent over thirty years in prison before becoming the first black president of South Africa.
New Economic Policy An economic policy of Vladimir Lenin’s in the Soviet Union where government controlled most banks and industry, but did allow some private ownership.
Nicholas II (1868-1918) Czar of Russia (1894-1917). He was overthrown during the Russian Revolution of 1917. Later, he and his family were killed by the revolution’s leadership.
Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin’s policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Nuremburg Trials War crime trials held in Nuremburg after World War II to try the surviving Nazis concerning the Holocaust, aggressive war making, mistreatment of prisoners among other things.
Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) Leader of the English Revolution that ousted the Stuart monarchs in favor of a short lived Republic. Cromwell acted as Lord Protector until the restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, an international organization concerned with the crude-oil policies of its member states.
Open Door Policy A policy of the United States that stated China should be open to all nations that which to trade with them. This policy did not include the consent of the Chinese, and was another form of imperialism.
Opium War Great Britain began importing opium into China; Chinese officials attempted to ban opium, but failed. GB declared war on China ; British military technology allowed them to claim victory & subject the Chinese to a series of unequal treaties.
Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) Prussian chancellor; Began a program of war to unify all the German states; Policy was known as Blood and Iron.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) One time terrorist organization, now considered to be a legitimate political body whose goals have been to create a nation-state for the displaced Palestinians. The PLO is lead by Yasir Arafat.
Parliamentary Democracy A form of government where the citizens elect members to represent them in a parliament, or legislative assembly.
Perestroika A policy of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to revitalize the Soviet economy by opening it up to more free enterprise.
Persian Gulf War (1990 – 1991) Conflict between Iraq and a coalition of countries led by the US to remove Iraqi forces from Kuwait which they had invaded in hopes of controlling their oil supply. A very one sided war with the United States’ coalition emerging victorious.
Peter the Great (1672-1725) Czar of Russia. He was responsible for the westernization of Russia in the 18th century.
Pol Pot (1925-1998) Leader of Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. Pol Pot is responsible for the deaths of almost 2 million of his own people due to starvation, execution, and beatings.
President F. W. de Klerk (1936 - ) The white South African president who ended Apartheid in the early 1990s.
Proletariat Term given to the working class people in society.
Protectorate A country or region that is controlled by a more powerful country.
Red Guard Militaristic group of students in China who brutalized anyone who criticized Mao’s government.
Red Shirts Nationalistic group/army created and led by Guiseppe Garibaldi to end foreign control of Italy during the 19th century.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Said that human reason was capable of discovering and explaining the laws of nature and man; Idea led to the beginning of the Enlightenment
Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) British writer and poet. His poem The White Man’s Burden became a popular justification for European imperialism.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) War between Russia and Japan over imperial possessions. Japan emerges victorious.
Saddam Hussein (1937- ) President of Iraq since 1979. He has led his control into two devastating wars, one against Iran in 1980 to 1988, and the Persian Gulf War in 1990 – 1991 which started as a result of his invading Kuwait.
Salt March (1930) Passive resistance campaign of Mohandas Gandhi where many Indians protested the British tax on salt by marching to the sea to make their own salt.
Satellite Nations Nations that were under the Soviet sphere of influence following the Allied victory in WWII. Satellite nations were communist.
Scientific Revolution Time period when scientists questioned beliefs about the universe. One of the main ideas to come out of the Scientific Revolution was the use of the Scientific Method, which uses observation and experimentation to explain theories.
Sepoy Mutiny (1857-1859) A revolt by the hired Hindu and Muslim soldiers of the British East India Company. This resulted in the British government officially taking control of India, making it a colony.
Simón Bolívar (1783-1830) Latin American revolutionary responsible for the ousting of Spain from much of South America during the 19th century. He is considered to be the most important figure in the fight for Latin American independence.
Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) British politician and Prime Minster of Great Britain from 1940 to 1945, and 1951 to 1955. He is regarded as the finest British leader of the 20th century and was instrumental in leading Britain to victory during World War II
Six-Day War (1967)War between Israel and Egypt, Syria, and Jordon where Israel defeated the three in six days, capturing territory from each.
Social Darwinism A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background.
Socialism A political system where the means of production are controlled by the workers and all things are shared evenly. Socialist policies provide for government funding of many basic needs such as food, shelter, and medical care.
Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) Formed in 1922 from most of the former Russian Empire. The Soviet Union was a world superpower along with the United States, and was one of the two major antagonist during the Cold War.
Space Race Term given to the competition between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War to advance their space programs.
Spheres of influence An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere.
Suez Canal A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Suez War of 1956 War between Israel and Egypt which resulted in Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula.
Suffrage The right to vote in elections.
Sun Yixian/Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) Chinese nationalist leader who fought to end foreign domination. He formed the Kuomintang, or Nationalist Party, which overthrew the Manchu Dynasty and established a republican form of government in its place.
Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
The Communist Manifesto Book written by Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels that describing socialism, which becomes the basis for communism; History is based on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production) and the proletariat (working class),
The White Man's Burden A poem by Rudyard Kipling; Some interpreted Kipling’s poem to mean that it was the duty of imperializing nations to bring western culture to the savage native populations
Theodore Herzl (1860-1904) Leader of Zionist movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) English philosopher and political theorist. Wrote Leviathan, where he favored an absolute government as the only means of balancing human interests and desires with their rights of life and property.
Tiananmen Square Massacre A political and social protest by university students in Beijing, China in 1989 under Deng Xioaping resulting in hundreds of deaths, thousands of injured, and many more imprisoned
Totalitarianism An ideology where all social, economic, and political powers are centered in the government completely.
Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century.
Treaty of Nanjing (1842) An unequal treaty between Great Britain and China resulting from the Opium War. China was to reimburse Britain for costs of the war, the Chinese had to open ports to British trade, give over control of Hong Kong, and grant extraterritoriality
Treaty of Tordesillas A treaty dividing the New World possessions between Portugal and Spain. This treaty, signed in 1494 was a product of the Catholic Church.
Treaty of Versailles Treaty ending World War I. It was extremely unfair to Germany, forcing them to accept all of the blame for the war. It is a major cause of World War II.
Trench Warfare A form of combat where armies fight each other from opposing fortified positions, usually consisting of long, dugout holes or trenches.
Triple Alliance An alliance that was made up of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy during World War I.
Triple Entente An alliance that was made up of France, Russia, and Great Britain during World War I.
Truman Doctrine A policy if the Truman presidency that called for supporting any nation resisting communism.
Unequal Treaty A treaty forced upon a country being dominated by another during Imperialism. These treaties often gave the imperialistic nation the ability to do whatever they needed to do in pursuit of profit.
United Nations An international body composed of many countries that seeks to promote peace, prosperity, and cooperation around the world. It was formed in 1945 at the end of World War II.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights A document published by the United Nations in 1948 stating that all people had certain basic rights including life, liberty, equality, justice and self determination.
Viet Cong The name of the Vietnamese communist who fought against South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War.
Vietnam War A war in the country of Vietnam, first between the French & Vietnamese, to keep control of its colony. The second war was between the US and the communist North Vietnam, The North Vietnamese eventually won, forcing the United States to withdraw.
Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) Russian revolutionary leader. He was the first leader of the new communist government of Soviet Russia. Later, he was also the first leader of the Soviet Union, which was composed of most of the republics of the former Russian Empire.
Voltaire (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Warsaw Pact An international defense alliance between the Soviet Union and many of its Eastern European satellite states as a response to NATO. Formed in 1955.
Wealth of Nations British philosopher and writer Adam Smith‘s 1776 book that described his theory on free trade, otherwise known as laissez-faire economics.
William and Mary of Orange King and Queen of England from 1689 to 1702. They were placed on the throne as a result of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, and ruled as limited monarchs.
Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924) President of the United States during World War I. He was one of the formulators of the Treaty of Versailles. He also proposed a regulating body of nations to avoid future conflicts through diplomacy in his 14 Points Speech.
World War I (1914 – 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
World War II (1939 – 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Yasir Arafat President of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. Considered by many to be a terrorist, he has in recent years been accepted as the legitimate authority to speak for the Palestinians. His goal was to create a homeland for the displaced Palestinians.
Yom Kippur War (1973) War between Israel and Egypt and Syria in which Israel defeated the two capturing land from each.
Zionism Jewish nationalist movement to establish a homeland in Palestine. Began in the late 1800s, as anti-Semitic feelings intensified. :eader of this movement was Theodor Herzl. Homeland was granted in 1948 with the creation of Israel.
Zulu The name of a tribe of South Africa people. They were the dominate tribe in the late 19th century when European Imperialism began. They resisted both the Boers and the British, but ultimately lost their homeland and freedom by 1879.
Created by: SReif