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Chapter 15 & 16 Test

Hon. World History

Who was Leonardo da Vinci? -Renaissance Man-An artist,inventor,scientist,&visionary-Mastered realism painting-Wanted to create idealized styles capture perfect nature of an individual-Dissected human beings to get a better understanding of the human body-Painted Mona Lisa&Last Supp
Who was Michelangelo? -Painter,sculptor,&architecture-Master of the High Renaissance-Painted+Sistine Chapel+David-Marble sculptor+The Pieta-Marble sculptor
Who invented the printing press? o Johannel Gutenburg invented the printing press o Revolutionized printing industry o Advanced technology in paper & printing
What was the Diet (Peace) of Augsburg? -Ended the religious warfare-Agreement that accepted the division of Christianity in Germany-German states allowed to choose between Christianity and Lutheranism-Lutheran states would have same legal rights as Catholic states
Who was Calvin? Reformer converted to Protestantism-Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion-Printing press ideas could be distributed widely-known as new head of Protestantism-Believed in Justification&Predestination-Believed no one could be certain of salvation
What is justification? processes of being deemed worthy for salvation
What is Predestination? belief that God has determined in advance who will be saved and who will be damned
Who was Queen Mary I? o Wanted to convert Europe to Catholicism o Killed over 300 Protestants as heretics o Nicknamed “Bloody Mary” o Made Protestant faith stronger (opposite effect of what she wanted)
What was the council of Trent? o A group of cardinals, archbishops, bishops, abbots, and theologians that met off and on for 18 years in the city of Trent
Name three elements of the Catholic Reformation.  Establish a new religious order; the Jesuits  Reform papacy  Council of Trent
Who was Ignatius Loyola? o Created Society of Jesus or Jesuits o Took a vow of obedience to the Pope making them important to the papal policy
Who were the Anabaptist? -Believe in complete separation of church&state-No hold political offices/bear arms cause they took the Commandments literally-Believe in baptism as an adult-all believers to be equal-Chose minister/spiritual leader-Called radicals-Persecuted
What were indulgences? o A release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death
How does one gain an indulgence? o Church sold indulgences o Pilgrimages to holy lands is a way to get indulgences o Gaining a relic is another way
Who was Erasmus? -Best known humanist-Believe people should live good lives on a daily basis-Wrote Praise the Folly humorously criticized the society moral&religious state&called for a simpler purer faith-Wanted reform the Catholic Church&prepared people for Reformation
What is humanism? o An intellectual movement of the Renaissance based on the study of the humanities which included grammar, rhetoric, poetry, moral, philosophy, & history
What is humanism based off of? o Based on the studies of ancient Greece and Rome (Greeks & Romans)
What is theocracy? o Government with divine authority o Calvin started this gov in Geneava
Who was Machiavelli? -Wrote The Prince on how to get and keep political power-A leader should do good when possible but bad when necessary-Had big impact on political views even today
5 facts about Lutheranism 1.Faith alone ensures salvation;rejects sacraments except Baptism&Eucharist 2.Bible is only source of religious truth 3.Services center on Biblical preaching,in vernacular languages 4.Church is a community of believers 5.Consubstantiation
What does Consubstantiation mean? bread and wine they do not change;they are symbols of Christ
What does Transubstantiation mean? bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ
5 facts about Catholicism 1.Good works and sacraments help ensure salvation 2. clergy interpret Bible 3. Services include ritual, use the Latin language 4. Church is a hierarchy of clergy 5. Transubstantiation
How did Martin Luther challenge the church in 1517? • 1517: nailed Ninety-five Theses to door of the Church; objected to sale of indulgences and corruption in the Church
How did Martin Luther challenge the church in 1520? • 1520: Pope Leo X issued papal bull (official letter from the pope) demanding Luther recant (apologize); Luther publicly burned the letter; Luther was declared a heretic and was excommunicated
How did Martin Luther challenge the church in 1521? 1521: Diet of Worms asked Luther to recant; he refused and was declared an outlaw
What is perspective? technique used to give a 2D surface a 3D effect
What is a fresco? painting done of fresh wet plaster with water based paints
What did Giotto show in his paintings? Giotto showed humans with realism and emotion
What did Masaccio use in his paintings? Masaccio used rules of perspective in frescoes (paintings on wet plaster with water-based paints) to create three dimensional figures
What did Donotello do? Donotello studied Greek and Roman statues and made the first free-standing statue since classical times
What did Filippo Brunellesci design? Filippo Brunelleschi designed the church of San Lorenzo in Florence, used columns, rounded arches, and a dome-shaped roof
What did the invention of the printing press lead to? Led to decreased prices for books; increased literacy and the spread of ideas
Created by: sossenkopp