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Chapter 22

Michael Faraday English scientist; he invented the dynamo- a machine that generated electricity
Thomas Edison established a power plant that supplied electricity to parts of New York City
Bessemer process a process developed in the 1850s that led faster, cheaper steel production
Henry Ford revolutionized factory production through use of the assembly line and popularized the affordable automobile
Wilbur and Orville Wright American pioneers of aviation; they went from experiments with kites and gliders to piloting the first successful gas-powered airplane flight
telegraph a machine perfected by Samuel F.B. Morse in 1832; it uses pulses of electric current to send messages across long distances through wires
Samuel Morse American artist and inventor; he applied scientists' discoveries of electricity and magnetism to develop the telegraph
Charles Darwin English scientist; he proposed the theory of evolution through natural selection, which came to be known as Dariwnism
Marie and Pierre Curie European chemists and physicists; they discovered radium and polonium in 1898
radioactivity a process in which certain elements constantly break down and release energy
Albert Einstein he developed the theory of relativity among his many scientific theories and was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics in 1921
Louis Pasteur his experiments with bacteria disproved the theory of infection; developed vaccines for anthrax and rabies
pasteurization the process of heating liquids to kill bacteria and prevent fermentation
anesthetic a drug that inhibits pain during surgery
Ivan Pavlov Russian physiologist and experimental psychologist; he researched the physiology of the heart, the digestive system, the brain, and the higher nervous system.
Sigmund Freud Austrian psychiatrist and founder of psychoanalysis; he treated hysteria using hypnosis and believed that complexes of repressed and forgotten impressions underlie all abnormal mental states
urbanization the migration of people from rural areas to cities
romanticism an artistic and literary movement at the beginning of the 1800s which rejected the rationalism of the Enlightenment in favor of emotion, intuition, and imagination
William Wordsworth English Romantic poet; his works include The Evening Walk, Descriptive Sketches, The Prelude, and The Excursion
Ludwig van Beethoven German composer who spanned the Classical and Romantic periods; often considered the greatest composer; wrote symphonies; quartets, and sonatas.
realism a mid-1800s movement in art and literature that rejected romanticism and sought to depict the details of everyday life, no matter how unpleasant
Charles Dickens English author during the Victorian era
Leo Tolstoy Russian novelist; his novel War and Peace portrayed war as confusing and horrible
Henrik Ibsen Norwegian poet and dramatist; he wrote A Doll's House, which revealed the unfair treatment of woman in the home
impressionism a new style of painting that began in France in the 1860s in which artists used light, vivid color ; and seeming motion to capture an impression of a scene
Alexander Graham Bell American inventor and educator; his interest in electrical and mechanical devices to aid people with hearing impairments led to the development and patent of the telephone
Guglielmo Marconi Italian physicist; he experimented with wireless telegraphy and established communication across the English Channel between France and England
Created by: lcs1340020