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Lecture 6

World history to 1500

Mandate of Heaven 1. The ruler has legitimacy because heaven has granted him a mandate. 2. That mandate is infused with morality.
Confuscious His teachings about ethics and the role of individuals in society form the 12-volume Analects.
Five Relationships 1. Ruler to Ruled 2. Father to Son 3. Husband to Wife 4. Elder brother to Younger brother 5. Friend to Friend
Pithy aphorisms “full of vigor, substance, or meaning + a terse saying embodying a general truth”
Qin Shihuangdi (259-210 BCE) First emperor of China (221 BCE) and founder of the Qin dynasty which gave its name to China.
Qin Dynasty practiced Legalistic policies,destroyed books to maintain control of information, scholars that disagreed were punishable by death
Qin Dynasty standardized weights and measures began constructing Great wall & 4250 miles of roads
Qin Shihuangdi's tomb Terra cotta soldiers Legalist Relationship with confusious philosophies- did not like them Built underground army to protect him for the next life
Han Synthesis During the Han Dynasty, political thinkers made an important synthesis of Legalism and Confucianism.
Han state adopted humanitarian views of Confucianism with the institutional efficiency of Legalism.
Han Technology advances Paper making Rudder Negative Numbers Raised-relief map Seismometer employing an inverted pendulum
Tang Dynasty Temples used as public spaces: Buddhist philanthropy assumes an important social role Controlled urban markets Improved agriculture Importance in Heirarchy
Song Dynasty period of calm and creativity printing developed (movable type)
Civil Service Examination System Failure would preclude a career in government Became dominant means of obtaining bureaucratic positions
Civil Service Examination System Preparation was focused on Confucian political theory Provided for fluid social mobility
Civil Service Examination System Promoted social cohesion Girls were not trained for exam, but did need some education to effectively train children in early life
Women & Family Life during the Song Status of women decline Foot binding virilocal marriage: the wife would move to man’s village Concubinage
Yuan Dynasty beginning of Mongol rule in China, under Kublai Khan
Genghiz khan "universal ruler" 1167-1227
Chinese proverb “One can conquer the world on horseback, but one cannot govern it on horseback”
Yuan Dynasty's loss of the "Mandate" 1. Administrative – Failure to maintain dykes & levies – factional disputes; 4 emperors, 1320-1329
Yuan Dynasty's loss of the "Mandate" 2. Natural Disasters (human neglect a factor) – 1330: famine; 1344: Yellow River floods • Rebel Groups emerge: – Factional disputes led to civil war in 1328.
White Lotus Sect founded by Mao Ziyuan, a millennial offshoot of Buddhism that challenged structure of worldly authority, often participated in rebellions against the Yuan.
Zheng He (1371-1433) – Moslem eunuch maritime leader – led 7 expeditions: 20,000 men – Zheng He sailed to Egypt & Southeast Asia; tributes were returned to Ming, but they only seemed a curiosity and were not repeated
Porcelain The pottery produced in China during the Ming dynasty is among the finest in the world
Additions to the Great Wall In the 15th and 16th centuries the Ming dynasty built elaborate earth-and-stone fortifications along China’s northern border
Ming Agriculture Cotton becomes widely grown Hemp & mulberry trees grown to feed silkworms Corn, sweet potatoes, peanuts from New World increases nutrient gradient; population expands Gendered aspects of silk production women could earn as much as male workers
Chilis • Chilis are an important food in China, especially in Sichuan cooking • Chilis were unknown to China until after Columbus.
Created by: alindley