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JEH1T Unit 3

Where is most of our information about this period from? Josephus
What empire did Alexander the Great lead? the Greek empire
Where is Alexander the Great originally from? Macedonia
Word describing Greek society Hellenistic
How many gods did Hellenists believe in? many
Did Simon (Cohen HaGadol) welcome or fight against Alexander + the Greeks? Welcome
Did Alexander respect or disrespect the Jews' culture? Respected
Where is Alexandria? Egypt
How did people sit in the Alexandrian synagogue? With their craft
Were the Jews in Alexandria wealthy or poor? Wealthy
What was the purpose of the library? To collect all the knowledge in the world
What was the Greek translation of the Torah called? the Septuagint
What language is the Septuagint? Greek
Why was the Septuagint created? Bc Jews in Alexandria mostly spoke Greek + couldn't read the Torah in Hebrew + King Ptolemy II needed it to complete his library collection
Two different views of creation of Septuagint in Talmud? 1) Septuagint can never be adequately translated 2) it is as big of a sin as the golden calf
What is a Greek city called? Polis
What did the Rabbis think of Hellenism? 1) not enough time for Greek culture in Jewish life 2) don't adapt Torah to world, adapt world to Torah
What were Jews that followed Hellenism called? Hellenists
Two different kinds of Hellenists? Extreme Hellenists + moderate Hellenists
Who wrote that "All wisdom comes from the Lord"? Ben Sira
What does "All wisdom comes from the Lord" mean? "All wisdom" shows Greek values (highest Hellenistic value was what you know) + "the Lord" shows Jewish value (highest Jewish value is what you do, i.e. mitzvot, which come from the Lord)
Did the rabbis think moderate Hellenists were more or less dangerous than extreme Hellenists? More
Why did rabbis think moderate Hellenists were more dangerous than extreme Hellenists? Bc they would make Hellenistic religion more appealing and accessible + more Jews will become Hellenists through moderate Hellenism than through extreme Hellenism. They said that ppl who read books of Ben Sira wouldn't go to heaven
What were Jews who upheld Judaism called? Hasidim
Who took over Alexander the Great? the Seleucid dynasty
Did Antiochus IV make things better or worse for the Jews? Worse
What did Antiochus IV do? Doubled taxes + Hellenized aggressively
Who was the Cohen HaGadol? Jason
What did Jason build in Jerusalem? A gymnasium
Who overthrew Jason? Menelaus
What happened after Menelaus overthrew Jason? Jason overthrew Menelaus + forced him into hiding
Why was Antiochus mad at Jason for overthrowing Menelaus? He saw it as a personal attack against his rule
What did Antiochus do after Jason overthrew Menelaus? Stole from the temple and killed citizens of Jerusalem w/ Menelaus
What did Antiochus prohibit the Jews from doing? Practicing Judaism
What family was Matitiyahu a member of? Hasmonean family
Where was Matitiyahu when he was told to sacrifice to Greek gods? Modi'in
What happened when Matitiyahu was told to sacrifice to Greek gods? Another Jew stood up to make the sacrifice instead of Matitiyahu + Matitiyahu killed him + attacked a gov't official
Who did Matitiyahu take with him to the wilderness? His 5 sons
Who took over the Maccabees after Matitiyahu died? His son, Judah
Who was part of the Maccabean civil war? Maccabees + Hasidim vs. Hellenists
How did Maccabees fight against the Seleucids? Using guerrilla warfare
What did the Maccabees do after they won the war? Marched into Jerusalem + ritually cleaned the Temple, re-established traditional Jewish worship + installed Jonathan Maccabee as high priest
Which family ruled after the Maccabees won the war? the Hasmonean family
What happened after the Hasmonean family took over? Jews gained independence
Who was an important king in the Hasmonean dynasty? King Alexander Yannai
Who was Alexander Yannai married to? Queen Salome
Who did Alexander Yannai get along with? Saducees
Who did Alexander Yannai disagree with? Pharisees
Why did Alexander Yannai + the Pharisees disagree? Bc King Yannai was combining high-priest + kingship (not allowed in Jewish law) + Pharisees didn't like that Hasmoneans supported Hellenists
What did the Pharisees throw at Yannai? Etrogim
When did the Pharisees throw etrogim at Yannai? Sukkot
Who took over the Hasmonean dynasty after Alexander Yannai? Queen Salome
Before Alexander Yannai died, what did he advise Salome to do? Make peace w/ Pharisees
Why does Yannai want to make peace w/ Pharisees? He feels his dynasty is threatened + wants to protect Hasmoneans + keep them in power
What does Queen Salome do when put in power? Followed his advice successfully
Who became the ruling class under Queen Salome? Pharisees
Who took over the Sanhedrin? Pharisees
What is the Sanhedrin? Jewish court
How did Shimon ben Shetach get the Sadducees out of the Sanhedrin? He said that only those who understand the Torah should be allowed in the Sanhedrin. Sadducees couldn't fulfill this task so they were replaced one by one by the Pharisees
Who were Salome's two sons? Hyrcanus II and Aristobulus II
Who did the brothers ask for help to fight against the other one for the leadership of Judah? Pompey
Who did the Romans decide to help? Hyrcanus II
What happened when Hyrcanus II won against Aristobulus? The Romans only put Hyrcanus as the High Priest (not King)
Who became King of Judah after Hyrcanus II became High Priest? Antipater
What did the Samaritans request of Alexander? To build their own Temple + and have Alexander's son-in-law, Manasses as their priest
Are there any details in Josephus that do not appear to be historically accurate? That Alexander would pray in the Jewish temple (he believed in + prayed to Greek gods, not the Jewish G-d)
Why was the Greek conquest beneficial for the Jews? Alexander would allow the Jews to follow their own customs + laws
What can be learned from the socio-economic status + culture of Jews in Alexandria? Wealthy + educated (had their own large synagogue)
What was the benefit of the Jewish "networking" system described (in Alexandrian synagogue)? If stranger or poor person came to synagogue, they would know where to sit + wouldn't have to sit alone
Identify the Jewish institutions of Alexandria Synagogue + library
What impact did the synagogue have on Jewish lifestyle? Made synagogue not only place for worship + sacrifice but also for Torah study, opened Torah study to larger Jewish audience
What impact did the library have on Jewish lifestyle? Opened Torah study to larger audience
What was the relationship btwn King Ptolemy + the High Priest? Good + friendly
Is the Letter of Aristeas a historical document, according to the historians? No bc they think it was written by an Alexandrian Jew pretending to be Greek
Social + cultural situation of Jews in Egypt? Were friendly w/ Greek non-Jews + acculturated (but not assimilated) in Greek society bc they were allowed to have own synagogue + library + socialized w/ Greek non-Jews
What details are added from Talmud on Septuagint? King Ptolemy gathered 72 scribes, put them in separated rooms + asked them to translate the Torah into Greek. With the help of G-d, they all translated the Torah identically
What did Yannai do at Kohalith? Conquered 60 towns
What did it symbolize when Yannai conquered 60 towns at Kohalith? He was a powerful king
What reason did Eleazar give to discredit the Pharisees to Yannai and how did he respond? He said that Yannai is superior to the Pharisees and everyone else and that Yannai should kill the Pharisees
What was Yannai's attitude toward the study of Torah? Thought it was unimportant
What was Yannai's relationship with his people like? Very bad, they even tried to rebel against him
How many Jews did Yannai kill? 6000
How many Jews went into exile until Yannai's death? 8000
Why were there no Pharisees in the Sanhedrin? Bc Yannai didn't allow them in the Sanhedrin
Created by: lovinglifexoxo



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