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Chapter 15

medical terminology

hypercalcemia excess of calcium in the blood
decalceification removal of calcium in the bones
kyphosis abnormal condition of of posterior curvature of the spine (humpback)
laminectomy removal of lamina
lordosis abnormal condition of exaggerated anterior curvature of the spine (swayback)
lumbar pertaining to the lower back
lumbosacral pertaining to the lower back and the sacrum
myelopoiesis formation of bone marrow
orthopedics medical specialty dealing with bone disorders
osteitis inflammation of bone
osteodsytrophy poor development of bone
osteogenisis osteogenisis imperfecta) formation of bone (brittle bone disease)
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature in the spine
spondylosis abnormal condition of the vertebrae
vertebroplasty surgical repair of a vertebra
osteoblast immature bone cell
osteoclast cell that breaks down and removes bone
spondylolithesis forward slipping of a vertebra over a lower vertebra
osteomalacia softening of bone
epiphysis the end of a long bone (to grow above)
pubic symphysis area where the pubic bones grow together
osteoporosis abnormal condition of loss of bone tissue and decrease in bone mass
osteotome an instrument to cut bone
osteoclasis surgical breaking of bone
acetabular pertaining to the hip socket (acetabulum)
calcaneal pertaining to the heel (calcaneus)
carpal pertaining to the wrist bones (carpals)
supraclavicular pertaining to above the collar bone (clavicle)
subcostal pertaining to below the ribs
chondrocostal pertaining to the cartilage attached to the ribs
craniotomy process of cutting into the skull (cranium)
craniotome instrument to cut the skull
femoral pertaining to the thigh bone (femur)
fibular pertaining to the fibula (smaller lower leg bone)
humeral pertaining to the humerus (upper arm bone)
iliac pertaining to the ilium (upper part of the pelvic bone)
ischial pertaining to the ishchium (posterior part of the pelvic bone)
malleolar pertaining to the malleolus (process on each side of the ankle)
mandibular pertaining to the mandible (lower jaw bone)
maxillary pertaining to the maxilla (upper jawbone)
metacarpectomy removal of he metacarpals (hand bones)
metatarsalgia pain in metatarsals (foot bones)
olecranal pertaining to the elbow (olecranon
patellar pertaining to the kneecap (patella)
pelvimetry measurement of the dimensions of the pelvis
peroneal pertaining to the fibula
phalangeal pertaining to the phalanges (fingers or toe bones)
pubic pertaining to the pubis (anterior part f the pelvic bone)
radial pertaining to the radius (forearm bone-thumb side)
scapular pertaining to the shoulder blade (scapula)
sternal pertaining to the sternum (breastbone)
tarsectomy removal of the tarsals (bones of the hindfoot)
tibial pertaining to the tibia (shin bone)
ulnar pertaining to the ulna (forearm bone-pinky side)
Ewing sarcoma rare malignant tumor arising in bone; often occurring in children
extosis bony growth(benign) arising from the surface of bone
fracture traumatic breaking of bone
colles fracture near the wrist at distal end of radius
comminuted fracture bone is crushed and splintered into several pieces
compression fracture bone collapses or is compressed; occurs in vertebrae
green stick fracture bone is partially broke, breaks on one surface and bends on another; often occurring in forearm
impacted fracture one fragment is driven firmly into the other; at the head of the femur or head of humerus
osteogenic sarcoma (osteosarcoma) common malignant tumor arising from osteoblasts, found in children and adolescents
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone and bone marrow secondary to infection
articular cartilage smooth glistening white tissue that covers the surface of a joint
bursa sac of fluid near a joint
ligament connective tissue binding bones to other bones
tendon connective tissue that binds muscles to bones
ankylosis abnormal stiffening of a joint
arthroplasty surgical repair of a joint
arthrotomy incision of a joint
hemarthrosis abnormal condition of blood in a joint
hydrarthrosis abnormal condition of fluid in joints
polyarthritis inflammation of many joints
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
achondroplasia a condition due to a defect in the formation of cartliage and bone
chondroma benign tumor of cartilage
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
ligamentous pertaining to a ligament
rhematologist a specialist in the study of joints and joint disorders
synovitis inflammation of the synovial membrane
tenorrhaphy suture of a tendon
tenosynovitis inflammation of a tendon and its sheath
tendinitis inflammation of a tendon
arthrodesis a surgical fusion of a joint
spinal stenosis narrowing of the spinal canal
fasciotomy incision of the fascia
fibromyalgia pain of the fibrous connective tissue and muscle
leiomyoma tumor of smooth muscle
leiomyosarcoma cancerous tumor of smooth muscle
myalgia muscle pain
electromyography (EMG) process of recording the strength of muscle contraction after electrical stimulation
myopathy disease of a muscle
myocardial pertaining to the heart muscle
myositis inflammation of a muscle
plantar flexion bending the sole of the foot downward toward the ground
rhabdomyoma tumor of the skeletal muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma cancerous tumor of skeletal muscle
sarcopenia loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging
myastenia gravis a neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles
atrophy decrease in cell size
hypertrophy increase in cell size
amytrophic pertaining to no muscle development
abduction movement away from the midline away from the body
adduction movement towards the midline of the body
dorsiflexion process of bending back
polymyalgia pain of many muscles
arthritis inflammation of any joint
ankylosing spondylitis chronic progressive arthritis primarily of the spine
gouty arthritis (gout) inflammation and painful swelling of joints cause by excessive uric acid in the body
osteoarthritis (OA) progressive, degenerative joint disease with loss of articular cartilage and hypertrophy of bone articular surfaces
rheumatoid arthritis (RA) chronic joint condition with inflammation and pain; caused by an autoimmune reaction against joint tissue, particularly the synovial membrane
bunion enlargement of bone or tissue around the joint at the base of the big toe (metatarsophalangeal joint)
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) Compression of the median nerve as it passes between the ligament and the bones and tendons of the wrist
dislocation Displacement of a bone from its joint
ganglion cyst Fluid-filled sac arising from joint capsules or tendons, typically in the hand
Lyme disease (Lyme arthritis) Disorder marked by arthritis, myalgia, and malaise; cause is a bacterium carried by a tick.
sprain Trauma to ligaments without rupture.
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) Chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving joints, skin, kidneys, central nervous system (CNS), heart, and lungs
flexion Decreasing the angle between two bones; bending a limb
extension Increasing the angle between two bones; straightening out a limb.
supination the act of turning the palm up
pronation the act of turning the palm down
fascia Fibrous membrane separating and enveloping muscles
insertion of a muscle Connection of the muscle to a bone that moves
origin of a muscle Connection of the muscle to a stationary bone
striated muscle Muscle connected to bones; voluntary or skeletal muscle
visceral muscle Muscle connected to internal organs; involuntary or smooth muscle.
rheumatoid factor test (RF) Serum is tested for the presence of an antibody found in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
arthroscopy Visual examination of a joint with an arthroscope and television camera
bone density test (bone densitometry) Low-energy x-ray absorption in bones of the spinal column, pelvis, and wrist is used to measure bone mass.
computed tomography (CT) X-ray beam and computer provide cross-sectional and other images.
diskography X-ray examination of cervical or lumbar intervertebral disk after injection of contrast into nucleus pulposus (interior of the disk).
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) Magnetic field creates images of soft tissue
muscle biopsy Removal of muscle tissue for microscopic examination
Created by: fahkinsunbear