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Endocrine Word List

Addison disease Chronic disorder of the adrenal glands caused by a deficiency of cortical hormones
Adenoma Tumour of a gland
antidiuretic Vasopressin: promotes reabsorption of water in teh kidneys
adrenal cortex Outer section of the adrenal gland which secretes steriods
adrenalectomy Surgical excision of an adrenal gland
adrenal glands two bean-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys which secrete steroids and sex hormones
adenal medulla inner section of the adrenal gland which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
aldosterone Steroid produced in the adrenal cortex. Is essential to life. Maintains sodium and potassium levels.
atrophy lack of development
cortisol a glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex
Cushing syndrome Disorder caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, resulting in excessive production of steroids.
diabetes mellitus A common pancreatic disorder involving insulin secretion into the blood, either in too much or too little
dwarfism a condition ob being abnormally small; may be hereditary or an endocrine dysfunction
endocrinology the study of ductless glands, their secretions, and their function of homeostasis.
epinephrine adrenaline - produced in the adrenal medulla. Increases heart reate, fat metabolism for energy, dilates the brochial tubes.
endocrine glands glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream
exophthalmos protusion of eyes due to swelling in tissues; often assocatied with Graves disease.
gigantism abnormal overgrowth of the entire body caused by hypersecretion of pituitary growth hormone before puberty
glucogenesis formation of glucose from glycogen
glucocorticoids steriods in the adrenal cortex that influence the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins.
glycogen substance in which carbohydrates are stored in the liver for future conversion into sugar.
hyperglycemia excessive amount of sugar in the blood
hyperinsulinism excessive amount of insulin in the blood-insulin shock
hypersecretion excessive secretion
hypocalcemia abnormally low amount of calcium in the blood
hypoglycemia too little sugar in the blood
hypogonadism underdevelopment of internal secretions of male sex glands
hypokalemia extreme depletion of potassium in the blood usually lost in diuresis
hyposecretion inadequate secretion
islets of Langerhans cluster of cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and glucagon
ketoacidosis an acute stage of diabetes mellitus characterized by hypotension and, evntually coma
metabolism processes in which substances are broken down or built up during chemical reactions taht are necesary to maintain life
mineralocorticoids hormones in the adrenal cortex taht regulates water and mineral salts (electrolytes) in the body
norepinephrine noradrenaline; produced in the adrenal medulla. increases blood pressure and constricts vessels
oral hypoglycemics medications used to stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin
pancreas an organ that contains groups of cells called the islets of Langerhans which produce endocrine secretions, such as insulin and glucagon.
parathyroid glands four separate glands taht are located on teh posterior surface of the lobes of the thyroid gland
pineal gland pine-cone shaped gland that is attached to the posterior part of the third ventricle of the brain which secretes melatonin
pituitary gland hypophysis; pea-shaped gland taht is located at the base of the brain
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia a condition of eating abnormally large amounts of food
serum glucose tests blood tests to aid in the diagnosis of insulin deficiency
somatotropin human growth hormone found in the anterior pituitary lobe
thyroid echogram ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland
thyroid gland largest gland on teh endocrine system. located in the neck just below the larynx
thyrotoxic thyroid poisoning
thyrotoxicosis abnormal condition of poisoning of the thyroid gland
thyroxine (T4) one of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid. REgulates metabolism and energy levels.
triiodothyronine (T3) one of the two major hormones produced, stored and released by the thyroid gland.
Created by: deyoht_kwa