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Endocrine Words

QuestionAnswer
Addison disease Chronic disorder of the adrenal glands caused by a deficiency of cortical hormones.
adenoma Tumour of a gland.
antidiurectic Vasopression: promotes reabsorption of water in the kidneys.
adrenal cortex Outer section of the adrenal gland which secretes steroids.
adrenalectomy Surgical excision of an adrenal gland.
adrenal glands Two bean-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys which secrete steroids and sex hormones.
adrenal medulla Inner section of the adrenal gland which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
aldosterone Steroid produced in the adrenal cortex. Is essential to life. Maintains sodium and potassium levels.
atrophy Lack of development.
Cortisol A glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex.
Cushing syndrome Disorder caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex, resulting in excessive production of steroids.
diabetes mellitus A common pancreatic disorder involving insulin secretion into the blood, either in too much or too little quantities.
dwarfism A condition of being abnormally small; may be hereditary or an endocrine dysfunction.
endocrinology The study of ductless glands, their secretions and their function of homeostasis.
epinephrine Adenaline - produced in the adrenal medulla. Increases heart rate, fat metabolism for energy and dilates the bronchial tubes.
endocrine glands Glands that secrete hormones directly into the blood stream.
exophthalmos Protrusion of eyes due to swelling in tissues; often associated with Graves disease.
gigantism Abnormal overgrowth of the entire body caused by hypersecretion of pituitary growth hormone before puberty.
glucogenesis Formation of glucose from glycogen.
glucocorticoids Steriods in the adrenal cortex that influence the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates and proteins.
glycogen Substance in which carbohydrates are stored in the liver for future conversion into sugar.
hyperglycemia Excessive amount of sugar in the blood.
Hyperinsulinism Excessive amount of insulin in the blood-insulin shock.
hypersecretion Excessive secretion.
hypocalcemia Abnormally low amount of calcium in the blood.
hypoglycemia Too little sugar in the blood.
hypogonadism Underdevelopment of internal secretions of male sex glands.
hypokalemia Extreme depletion of potassium in the blood usually lost in diuresis.
hyposecretion Inadequate secretion.
islets of Langerhans Clusters of cells in the pancreas which produce insulin and glucagon.
ketoacidosis An acute stage of diabetes mellitus characterized by hypotension and eventually, coma.
metabolism Processes in which substances are broken down or built up during chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.
mineralocorticoids Hormones in the adrenal cortex that regulate water and mineral salts (electrolytes) in the body.
norepinephrine Noradrenaline;producted in the adrenal medulla, increases blood pressure and constricts vessels.
oral hypoglycemics Medications used to stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin.
pancreas An organ that contains groups of cells called the islets of Langerhans which produce endocrine secretions, such as insulin and glucagon.
parathyroid glands Four separate glands that are located on the posterior surface of the lobes of the thyroid gland.
pineal gland Pine-cone shaped gland that is attached to the posterior part of the third ventricle of the brain which secretes melatonin.
pituitary gland Hypophysis; pea-shaped gland that is located at the base of the brain.
polydipsia Excessive thirst.
polyphagia A condition of eating abnormally large amounts of food.
serum glucose tests Blood tests to aid in the diagnosis of insulin deficiency.
somatotropin Human growth hormone found in the anterior pituitary lobe.
thyroid echogram Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland.
thyroid gland Largest gland on the endocrine system. Located in the neck, just below the larynx.
thyrotoxic Thyroid poisoning.
thyrotoxicosis Abnormal condition of poisoning of the thyroid gland.
thyroxine (T4) One of the two major hormones produced by the thyroid. Regulates metabolism and energy levels.
triiodothyronine (T3) One of the two major hormones produced, stored and released by the thyroid gland.
Created by: Barbara Ross
 

 



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