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Ch 11 Vocab. AP Geo

Vocabulary for chapter 11 of The cultural landscape an intro. to human geography

Acid deposition sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted by burning fossil fuels, that enter the atmosphere-where they combine with oxygen & water to form sulfuric acid & nitric acid-and return to Earth's surface
Acid precipitation Conversion of sulfur oxide & nitrogen oxides to acids that return to Earth as rain, snow, or fog
Air pollution Concentration of trace substances, such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and solid particulates, at a greater level than occurs in average air
Apparel an article of clothing
Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) amount of oxygen required by aquatic bacteria to decompose a given load of organic waste; a measure of water pollution
Break-of-bulk point location where transfer is possible from one mode of transportation to another
Bulk-gaining industry industry in which the final product weighs more or comprises a greater volume the inputs
Bulk-reducing industry industry in which the final product weighs less or comprises a lower volume than the inputs
Chlorofluocarbon (CFC) gas used as a solvent, a propellant in aerosols, a refrigerant, & in plastic foams & fire extinguishers
Cottage industry manufacturing based in homes rather than in factories, commonly found prior to the Industrial Revolution
Ferrous metals, including iron, that are utilized in the production of iron and steel
Fordist production form of mass production in which each worker is assigned one specific task to perform repeatedly
Greenhouse effect anticipated increase in Earth's temperature caused by carbon dioxide (emitted by burning fossil fuels) trapping some of the radiation emitted by the surface
Industrial Revolution series of improvements in industrial technology that transferred the process of manufacturing goods
Just-in-time delivery shipment of parts and materials to arrive at a factory moments before they are needed
Labor-intensive industry industry for which labor costs comprise a high percentage of total expenses
Maquiladora factory built by a U.S. company in Mexico near the U.S. border, to take advantage of the much lower labor costs in Mexico
New international division of labor transfer of some types of jobs, especially those requiring low-paid, less-skilled workers, from more developed to less developed countries
Nonferrous metals utilized to make products other than iron and steel
Nonpoint-source pollution pollution that originates from a large, diffuse area
Outsourcing decision by a corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers
Ozone gas that absorbs ultraviolet radiation, found in the stratosphere, a zone 15 to 50 kilometers (9-30 miles) above Earths surface
Photochemical smog atmospheric condition formed through a combination of weather conditions & pollution, especially from motor vehicle emissions
Point-source pollution pollution that enters a body of water from a specific source
Post-Fordist production adoption by companies of flexible work rules, such as the allocation of workers to teams that perform a variety of tasks
Right-to-work law U.S. law that prevents a union and a company from negotiating a contract that requires workers to join the union as a condition of employment
Sanitary landfill place to deposit solid waste, where a layer of earth is bulldozed over garbage each day to reduce emissions of gases and odors from the decaying trasht, to minimize fires, and to discourage vermin
Site factors location factors related to the costs of factors of production inside a plant, such as land labor, and capital
Situation factors location factors related to the transportation of materials into and from a factory
Textile fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
Vertical integration approach typical of traditional mass production in which a company controls all phases of a highly complex production process
Created by: ivanderzon17