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Chapter 21

The Americas

conquistadors Spanish soldiers who conquered people in other lands
circumnavigate to go completely around something, such as the world
allies those who support each other for some common purpose
smallpox a disease that causes a high fever and often death
ambush a surprise attack
hostage someone held against his or her will in exchange for something
plantations a large estate or farm that used enslaved people or hired workers to grow and harvest crops
cash crops crops grown in large amounts to be sold for profit
mercantilism an economic theory that depends on a greater amount of exports than imports in order to increase a country's supply of gold and silver
commerce an exchange of goods; business
entrepreneur one who organizes, pays for, and takes on the risk of setting up a business
cottage industry a system for making goods in workers' homes