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WH 10: Unit 12

The Modern World

India A country that was taken over by the British in the 17th century. India was Great Britain's "Crown Jewel". It made the British a great deal of money because of its strategic location in the Indian ocean. It was a country with both Hindus and Muslims.
Indian Congress Party An organization mainly composed of Hindus in India who fought against the British occupation of India. Gandhi was a prominent and important leader of this group.
Muslim League An organization mainly composed of Muslims in India who fought against the British occupation of India.
Ceylon The old name for the island off the Southeastern Coast of India. Today it is modern day Sri Lanka
Rowlatt Acts The British law that forbid people in India from protesting. The law against protesting
Amritsar Massacre The Indian people didn't like the law against protesting so they held a huge protest with 10,000 Indian people. The British soldiers fired into the crowds killing hundreds of innocent unarmed people. It made the British government look corrupt.
Mohandas Gandhi Leader of Indian resistance movement he was a Hindu lawyer who wanted to get rid of the British and get India's independence. He is famous because he urged passive resistance and civil disobedience. He was killed by a Hindu extremist.
Passive Resistance Act of resisting in a NONVIOLENT way. Gandhi encouraged his followers to get independence by symbolic protests, boycotts, hunger strikes, etc. But he urged them never to fight back, it made the British look evil and corrupt.
Civil Disobedience Act of refusing to obey certain unjust laws, demands, and commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Gandhi told his followers to break the unjust laws. Like when he gathered salt from the sea shore even though it was unlawful.
Pakistan When India was granted its independence in 1947. Great Britain split India into India (for Hindus) and East and West Pakistan (for Muslims). Modern day Pakistan is what was then West Pakistan, still today a mostly Muslim country.
Jawaharlal Nehru First Prime Minister of India (he was best friends with Gandhi). Would lead India for 17 years. He sought to help the people of the lower castes and women. He had one daughter named Indira Gandhi.
Indira Gandhi Daughter of Nehru. She would take over India and serve as Prime Minister. Known for her Treaty of Peace, Friendship, and Cooperation with the U.S.S.R. as well as her plan to build secret nuclear weapons. She was murdered by religious minority group.
Bangladesh Modern Day Bangladesh used to be known as East Pakistan. A mostly Muslim country that fought for its independence from West Pakistan because they felt like West Pakistan didn't care enough about them or support them.
Sri Lanka The modern name for the island off the Southeastern Coast of India. It was known originally as Ceylon
Ghana A country in West Africa that gained its independence from the British in 1957
Kwame Nkrumah Leader of the independence movement in Ghana. Kwame Nkrumah convinced the British to give Ghana its independence in 1957 making Ghana the first African country to secure its independence.
Algeria A country in North Africa that fought long and hard to gain its independence from the French which wasn't granted until 1962. Today there is a deadly civil war between the Islamic militants and government officials
Algerian Civil War Modern conflict in Algeria. The Islamic militants want to control the country but government officials do not want to give up control of the country.
Kenya A country in East Africa that gained its independence from the British in 1963 after a violent uprising of peasants and the independence movement led by Jomo Kenyatta
Jomo Kenyatta Leader of the Kenyan independence movement. He worked to free Kenya from British control. He eventually would take over the country and would serve as Kenya's first President.
Mau Mau Group of Africans in Kenya who rose up and attacked British farmers and settlers in Kenya. The Mau Mau wreaked enough havoc and convinced the British that Kenya was not a desirable colony. Helped Kenya gain its indpendence in 1963.
South Africa Southern most country in Africa and was controlled by the British until it gained independence in 1961. South Africa is known for its racial segregation policies that separated whites and blacks, APARTHEID, which did not end until the 1990s.
Nelson Mandela Famous leader of the African National Congress who fought to end APARTHEID. He was imprisoned several times in his fight to end the racist law. Was 1st black President of South Africa. Sometimes called the "Father of the Nation". Died Dec. 5, 2013.
Apartheid Law in South Africa that segregated whites and blacks. Started in 1948 and lasted long until the 1990s. This law placed strict limits on where blacks could live, & what jobs they could hold. Nelson Mandela and the ANC fought to get rid of apartheid.
African National Congress Group of Africans in South Africa who formed a group in order to end the policy of APARTHEID, segregation of whites and blacks, and fought for equality
Palestine Country that was controlled by the British after WWI as a mandate. After WWII according to the UN part Palestine's land would be taken to create the new nation of Israel as a home for the Jews. The mostly Arab country did not want to give up their land.
Israel Country that was founded after WWII (1948) by the UN with U.S. support. The land was taken from Palestine and would be used as a home for the Jewish people. The Palestinians were not happy about the decision to take their land and there is conflict.
Arab-Israeli War in 1948 The War broke out the day after the country of Israel was created out of land from Palestine. Six Islamic neighbor states including Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt and Saudi Arabia invaded Israel. With U.S. support Israel won the conflict in several months.
Gamal Abdul Nasser Took over as Egypt's Prime Minister in 1954. He decided to nationalize the Suez Canal (i.e. put Egypt in control of it) and built the Aswan High Dam with funds from the U.S.S.R.
Nationalization of the Suez Canal Prime Minister Nasser decided to have Egypt take over the Suez Canal. He took over the Canal allowing Egypt to regulate who got to use the canal. This hurt U.S. & British who lost the ability to use the canal strategically and the money from the canal
Aswan High Dam Dam that would control the flooding along the Nile River. He had been talking to the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War so the U.S. & British withdrew their funding for the damn. The U.S.S.R. stepped in and helped pay for it.
Six Day War In 1967 Israel launched the Six Day War against Egypt. Worried about Muslim/Arab Egypt's strength Israel wanted to increase its borders. Israel won and gained several key pieces of territory.
Golda Meir The first female Prime Minister of Israel. Led Israel during the Yom Kippur War. Continued the strong alliance between the U.S. and Israel especially when the U.S.S.R. continued to support Egypt.
Yom Kippur Wars In 1973 Egypt launched the Yom Kippur Wars on Israel by launching a surprise attack on Israel on the holiest of Jewish holidays Yom Kippur. This surprise attack caught the Israelis off guard but they fought well and regained most of their territory.
Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Organization founded in 1964 to fight for the removal of Israel and the return of Israel's land to the Palestinian people. It changed in the 1990s officially recognized Israel in 1993. However violence between Israelis and Palestinians continues today.
Yasser Arafat Claimed to be the leader of the Palestinian Liberation Organization or the PLO.
Anwar Sadat Egypt's President who helped Egypt launch the Yom Kippur Wars on Israel.
Camp David Accords Peace talks in 1979 between Egypt's President Anwar Sadat and Israel's Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Hosted at U.S. President's retreat in Camp David. Egypt officially recognized Israel as a country.
Developed Countries Is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations. The U.S. would be considered a developed country
Developing Countries Is a nation with a lower living standard, underdeveloped industrial base. There is no universal, agreed-upon criterion for what makes a country developing versus developed and which countries fit these two categories.
Migration The process of moving from one country to another country to live.
Immigrants The people who move or migrate to a new country are known as immigrants
Refugee Camps Sometimes there are not enough resources to help individuals who have migrated to a new country so they live in poor housing with often little food or water in camps of temporary housing.
Judaism Was concentrated in Europe & Middle East and now is concentrated in Israel and North America. Beliefs include: Monotheism; Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct; Torah: Written records and beliefs of the Jews
Christianity Was concentrated in Europe & Middle East and is now concentrated in Europe and the Americas. Belief in: Monotheism; Jesus as Son of God; Life after death; New Testament: Life and teachings of Jesus; Catholics & Protestants (Christian but not Catholic)
Islam Was concentrated in Asia, Africa, & Southern Europe and now is concentrated in Middle East, Africa, and Asia. Belief in: Monotheism; Muhammad, the prophet; Qur’an (Koran); Five Pillars of Islam; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina
Hinduism Was concentrated in India and Southeast Asia and now is concentrated in India. Belief in: Many forms of one God; Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma; Karma: Knowledge that thoughts and actions result in future consequences, Vedas & Upanishads.
Buddhism Was concentrated in East and Southeast Asia and today is concentrated in same places. Belief in: Siddhartha Gautama the Buddha; Four Noble Truths; Eightfold Path to Enlightenment; Goal is to gain Enlightenment
Somalia A civil war has been going on in this country since 1991. Multiple groups are vying for control. The U.S. & UN forces started a peace keeping mission in 1992. However after the loss of too many American lives we withdrew troops in 1994 and the UN in 1995
Sudan Darfur a western province of Sudan. In Darfur, soldiers and the government have been accused of genocide against those who do not agree with their ideas. The conflict has killed over 200,000 people and created hundreds of thousands of refugees.
Darfur Darfur a western province of Sudan. In Darfur, soldiers and the government have been accused of genocide against those who do not agree with their ideas. The conflict has killed over 200,000 people and created hundreds of thousands of refugees.
Taliban The Soviet Union tried to invade Afghanistan in 1979. The U.S. armed Afghan fighters known as the Mujahedeen to fight the U.S.S.R. After an EXTREME Islamic group known as Taliban took over Afghanistan & allowed terrorist organizations to train in Afgh.
Irish Republican Army (IRA) Southern Ireland was given its independence from the United Kingdom (G.B.) but Northern Ireland was not. The IRA is an organization that engaged in terrorist attacks against the British in an effort to gain Northern Ireland's independence.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) Branch of the UN that to regulate exchange rates and to lend money to nations in need. Very controversial because the interest can be high on loans to nations that are struggling.
European Union (EU) Some democratic nations in Europe joined together to create free trade among their people in 1951. Now it involves 28 countries including 7% of the world's population. 17 of the member nations have agreed to use the Euro as currency which strengthened it
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) United States, Canada, and Mexico signed this agreement in 1994 in an effort to increase trade among the countries and cut down on tariffs. The effect has been both positive and negative.
World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade organization today that includes 153 member nations. The goal is to promote fair trade among its 153 member nations making trade and globalization easier.
Cyberterrorism Terrorist attacks that involve attacks on information systems such as computer networks to gain information OR to stop a computer system from working entirely.
Summertime Olympics in Munich in 1972 Members of the Palestinian Liberation Organiz. kidnapped Israeli athletes. The intent was to use the kidnappings as a negotiating tool. In the end none of the demands were met, and 11 Israeli athletes were killed.
9/11/01 They hijacked four planes and were members of al-Qaeda, which was led by Osama bin Laden. Crashing two into the World Trade Center in New York City and one into the Pentagon, the fourth plane went down in western Pennsylvania.
Al-Qaeda A terrorist organization led by Osama bin Laden operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan. It is the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks on the United States.
USA Patriot Act Part of the U.S. response to the 9/11, terrorist attacks. It is a federal law which gives the FEDERAL government several new powers to help pursue and capture terrorists. This law is criticized for invading individual rights.
Department of Homeland Security Congress created a new branch of the Federal government to oversea threats and try to prevent terrorist attacks. This department reports to the President.
Created by: thompsonce