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Unit 20

Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment

TermDefinition
Scientific Revolution Time period where people attempted to discover the natural laws of the universe using reason. People were taught to discover the truth using experimentation and discovery, not relying on tradition.
Age of Enlightenment Applied the advances of the Scientific Revolution to areas of law, government, human rights, etc.
Galileo Invented a more effective telescope. Believed universe was heliocentric. Discovered mountains on earth's moon, found 4 moons revolving around Jupiter, etc. Was forced to recant under pressure from the Church
Kepler Believed in heliocentric universe, but believed the orbits were elliptical rather than circular
Copernicus Wrote that universe was heliocentric and planets had circular orbits around the sun. Stated moon revolved around Earth and Earth rotates on axis
Isaac Newton Believed that the universal law of gravitation explained all motion in the universe
Francis Bacon credited with developing the scientific method
Scientific Method a way to solve problems. Observation, hypothesis, experiment, analysis, conclusion
John Locke Enlightenment philosopher who believed that all people are born with natural rights, that the government should protect those rights, that the people had the right to overthrow their government, and that government should come from the people
Adam Smith Promoted laissez-faire capitalism in his book The Wealth of Nations. Believed the invisible hand of supply and demand should dictate prices, wages, etc.
Laissez-faire Economic system where the government did not interfere with the economy. First proposed by Adam Smith
Rousseau Wrote about the social contract. He believed people entered into government and wrote laws to protect their property. This meant people have become enslaved by the government. Thought the government should act for the general will of all.
Enlightened Despots Absolute rulers who attempted to govern according to Enlightenment principles
Montesquieu Enlightenment philosopher who believed that a separation of powers was necessary in government so that no one person or branch of government became too powerful
heliocentric sun-centered. A view of the universe held by Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler during this time period.
geocentric earth centered. Aristotle and the Catholic Church during this time period believed in this model of the universe.
Created by: mrfordglobal