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Global Studies Rev.

Global Studies Regents Review

TermDefinition
absolutism (absolute rule, absolute monarchy) *Divine Right *Centralized power *Louis XIV, Suleiman the Magnificent
animism & Shinto *beliefs that all things in nature have spirits
apartheid *segregation (separation) of races in South Africa
archaeologist *studies artifacts (human-made objects)
Bantu migrations *African slash and burn farmers *migrated across Africa for fresh soil *spread knowledge and language
bubonic plague (Black Death) *spread from Asia to Europe through trade *caused labor shortages
Buddhism *Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
Byzantine Empire *used to be eastern half of Roman Empire *Justinian Code: written laws *preserved Greek and Roman culture
Byzantine influence on Russia *Eastern Orthodox Christian Church *Cyrillic alphabet
causes of World War I Mania *militarism, alliances, nationalism, imperialism, assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
characteristics of civilizations *specialized jobs *public works *art and architecture *centralized government *cities *organized religion *writing
Chinese Communist Revolution *led by Mao Zedong *supported by Chinese peasants
chivalry & bushido *codes of conduct for medieval warriors (knights and warriors)
Code of Hammurabi *first written laws *"eye for an eye" *different punishments for different social classes
Cold War Events *Cuban Missile Crisis *Korean War *Vietnam War
Columbian Exchange *cultural diffusion between the old and new world *Europe: new foods led to population increase *Africa: devastated by population loss from slavery
Confucianism *superior should care for the inferior *led to civil service exams in China *inferior should honor the superior
Commercial Revolution *guilds, banking, capitalism
Constantinople *capital of Byzantine Empire *located between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea *crossroads of trade
cultural diffusion *spread of ideas from one society to another
desertification *deserts expanding due to overuse (over farming and overgrazing)
divine right *belief that God wanted monarchs to rule
economic hardships (Great Depression) *why fascists came to power in Europe between World War I and World War II
economist *studies how goods and resources are used
effect of geography on Korea *location: "cultural bridge" between China and Japan
effect of mountains and islands on ancient Greece *led to separate city-states (like Athens and Sparta)
effects of Crusades *trade between Europe and Middle East *cultural diffusion between Europeans and Muslims
encomienda system *Spanish monarchs gave land to colonizers *also made native peoples slaves
Enlightenment *based on the Scientific Revolution *use of reason *natural rights (life, liberty) *John Locke *consent of the governed (democracy)
feudalism *Europe's political system after the fall of Rome *land in exchange for military service *decentralized
five-year plan *Stalin's attempts to increase Soviet industrial and agriculture output
Four Modernizations *Deng Xiaoping's attempt to build Chinese industry and agriculture *more economic freedom (capitalism)
geographer *studies how landforms, water, climate, and location affect people and regions
golden age *advances in math, science, medicine, art
Golden Age of Islam *preserved Greek and Roman learning *medical books *algebra
Great Leap Forward *Mao Zedong's attempt to build Chinese industry and agriculture
Green Revolution *increased agricultural production thanks to 20th century technology
Gupta Dynasty *India *Concept of zero *decimal system
Hellenistic dynasty *Alexander the Great conquered Greece, Egypt, and Persia...got as far as India *created new culture combining all these
Himalaya Mountains *isolated early China from early India
human rights violations *massacres and genocides *examples include massacres in Armenia, Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, Hutus and Tutis in Rwanda
impact of printing press *faster spread of ideas across Europe *helped fuel the Protestant Reformation
Incas *empire of Andes mountains *terrace farming *roads
Iranian Revolution *led to Islamist theocracy (government by religious leaders)
Irish Potato Famine *starvation due to crop failure *led to many Irish migrating to other countires
Italian city-states *location: Mediterranean trade *wealth and cultural diffusion led to the Renaissance
Jomo Kenyatta *African nationalist who led independence movement
Karl Marx and Communist Manifesto *called for proletariat (workers) revolution to overthrow capitalists (owners)
Kemal Ataturk *westernized, modernized, democratized Turkey
laissez-faire capitalism *government should stay out of economies *supply and demand should determine prices in a free market
Latin American independence leaders *Jose de San Martin *Simon Bolivar *Toussaint L'Ovuveture
League of Nations *lack of military allowed Axis aggression that led to World War II
limited monarchy *Magna Carta *Glorious Revolution *English Bill of Rights
location of Mongol Empire *most of Asia, parts of Eastern Europe
Machiavelli *wrote The Prince *ruler should build power however he can *ends justifies the means
manorialism *agricultural (based on farming) *self-sufficient *three field system
Marco Polo and Ibn Buttuta *increased interest in China and Asia *journals are important primary sources
Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine *US aid to other countries to contain communism
Meiji Restoration *Japan westernized, industrialized, and modernized
mercantilism *economic system based on trade *colonies were sources of raw resources *colonies were markets for manufactured products *countries wanted a favorable balance of trade
Middle Passage *voyage from Africa to America with slaves
Mohandas Gandhi *nationalist who led Indian independence movement *civil disobedience *non-violence
Napoleon and Hitler *both defeated because of invasion of Russia by climate (winter)
nationalism *unified Germany and Italy *broke up Austria and Hungry and Ottoman Empire
NATO *alliance against Soviet Union
navigational technology *caravel *compass *astrolabe *improved cartography (mapmaking)
Nelson Mandela *led an anti-apartheid movement in South Africa
Neolithic Revolution *When humans domesticated plants and animals *lifestyles changed from hunting and gathering to settled farming *many settled in fertile river valleys to farm
nuclear proliferation *more countries are getting nuclear weapons (like Iran and North Korea)
oil (petroleum) *Middle East has it *OPEC controls it
Ottoman Empire *conquered Byzantines: took Constantinople *controlled Eastern Mediterranean trade
Pax Mongolia *Mongol Peace *political stability *increased trade
perestroika and glasnost *Gorbachev's economic and political reform of the Soviet Union *led to the break up of the Soviet Union
physical map *shows land forms (mountains, rivers, and deserts)
political map *shows borders (counties and cities)
pre-Columbian advanced civilizations *Mayans and Aztecs in Mesoamerica *Incas in South America
primary sources *are from the events they are about *diaries, letters...
Protestant Reformation *Martins Luther's 95 Theses *complained about the selling of Catholic indulgences
reason for Japanese imperialism *Japan lacked (needed)natural resources
reasons Europeans fought in Crusades *wanted to capture Holy Land *Pope promised salvation (pardon from sins)
Renaissance and humanism *rebirth of Greek and Roman ideas *secular (worldly, not religious) *focused on individuals
Roman Catholic Church *centralizing force in Middle Ages Europe
Russian Revolution *Lenin promised "Peace, Land and Bread"
Sepoy Mutiny and Boxer Rebellion *attempt to remove foreign influence
Spanish colonial classes *peninsulares *creoles *mestizos and mulattoes *native Americans and Africans
subsistence agriculture *growing just enough to survive (NOT growing extra to trade or sell)
Suez and Panama Canals *ocean shortcuts
Tang and Song dynasties *China *porcelain *gunpowder *printing
totalitarianism *government control *censorship
traditional economy *based on agriculture (farming) and barter (trade)
apartheid *A political policy in South Africa where black South Africans could only live in certain areas, were required to use separate trains, beaches, restaurants, and schools, and could not enter into an interracial marriage
appeasement *The policy of pacifying an aggressive nation in the hopes of avoiding further conflict.
aqueducts *Above ground structures used to carry water long distances. Built by the ancient Romans
communism *A system of government in which a single, totalitarian, party holds power. It is characterized by state control of the economy, and restriction on personal freedoms. It was first proposed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Communist Manifesto
Communist Manifesto, The *A book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that describes the new political system of scientific socialism, which becomes the basis for communism. States that all of human history is based on the conflict between the bourgeoisie (those who own the
Communist Revolution A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution
jihad Effort in God’s service waged by Muslims in defense of the Islamic faith
polytheism The belief in many gods or goddesses
Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal (1881-1938) Nationalist leader of Turkey who is responsible for modernizing and westernizing his country after World War I. This enabled Turkey to resist imperialist attempts at takeover by various European powers
Augustus (63 BCE – 14 CE) First emperor of Rome (27 BCE – 14 CE) He restored order and prosperity to the Empire after nearly a century of turmoil. Grandnephew to Julius Caesar
Ayatollah Khomeini (1900?-1989) Islamic religious leader who led a fundamentalist revolution in Iran in 1979. Ruled until 1989
Castro, Fidel (1926?- ) Leader of the Cuban Revolution and communist dictator of Cuba. He is responsible for making Cuba a socialist country which has often been at odds with the United States. Notably, the bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
Catherine the Great An enlightened despot who ruled over Russia. She is responsible for many positive changes in Russia, as well as securing the country a warm water port
Cavour, Camillo (1810-61) Prime Minister of Sardinia, a large Italian State. He formed alliances with other foreign powers to help end Austria's and Spain's control. Instrumental in the unification of Italy
Chamberlain, Neville (1869-1940) Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1937 to 1940. He is responsible for the policy of appeasement with Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany
Elizabeth I (1533-1603) Queen of England and Ireland between 1558 and 1603. She was an absolute monarch and is considered to be one of the most successful rulers of all time
Engels, Friedrich (1820-1895) German socialist and co-author of The Communist Manifesto
Genghis Khan (1167?-1227) One of the Mongol’s greatest leaders and founder of the Mongol Empire
Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931- ), leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His policies of Perestroika and Glasnost, which aimed at revitalizing the Soviet Union contributed to the downfall of communism
Guevara, Che (1928-1967) Latin American guerilla leader. In the mid 20th century Guevara was instrumental in helping Fidel Castro lead the Cuban Revolution. He was later killed in Bolivia while trying to lead a revolution there
Gutenberg, Johannes (1400?-1468) German printer and European pioneer in the use of movable type
Henry VIII (1491-1547) King of England who transformed his country into a Protestant nation during the Reformation
Herzl, Theodor (1860-1904) Leader of Zionist movement to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine
Kaiser Wilhelm (1859-1941) King of Prussia and Emperor of Germany whose political policies led his country into World War I. He was forced from power when Germany lost the war
Kenyatta, Jomo (1894?-1978) Independence leader who help lead Kenya out of European imperialism after World War II
Khrushchev, Nikita (1894-1971) Leader of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964. Khrushchev was critical of Stalin’s policies and attempted to reverse some of them. He is responsible for placing nuclear missiles in Cuba which resulted in the Cuban Missile Crisis
King Leopold (1835-1909) King of Belgium who began imperialistic trade inside of Africa which resulted in the Scramble for Africa
Kipling, Rudyard (1865-1936) British writer and poet. His poem The White Man’s Burden became a popular justification for European imperialism
Locke, John (1632-1704) English philosopher and political theorist. He wrote Two Treaties on Government which explained that all men have Natural Rights, which are Life, Liberty, and Property, and that the purpose of government was to protect these rights
Louis XIV (1638-1715) Known as the Sun King, he was an absolute monarch that completely controlled France. One of his greatest accomplishments was the building of the palace at Versailles
Louis XVI (1754-1793) King of France between 1774 and 1792. He was overthrown during the French Revolution and later beheaded
L'Ouverture, Toussain (1743?-1803) Revolutionary leader who is responsible for ousting France from Haiti during the Latin American Revolutions in the early 19th century
Quran Islamic holy book
Akbar the Great (1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion
Alexander the Great (356 BCE-323 BCE) He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began the Hellenistic culture which was a blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences
Created by: sguynup
 

 
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