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Chapter 19

TermDefinition
geocentric theory scientific theory that has the earth as the center of the universe with the sun and stars revolving around it
Scientific Revolution a transformation in European thought in the 1500s and 1600s that called for scientific observation, experimentation, and the questioning of traditional opinions
scientific method a method of inquiry that promotes observing, measuring, explaining, and verifying as a way to gain scientific knowledge
Rene Descartes French philosopher, mathmatician, and scientist
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish astronomer; he proposed the heliocentric, or sun-centered, theory of the universe.
heliocentric theory scientific theory that has the sun as the center of the universe with the earth rotating around the sun
Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer, mathematician, and physicist
Issac Newton English mathematician and natural philosopher; he discovered the law of gravity
Enlightenment a time of optimism and possibility from the late 1600s to the late 1700s; also called Age of Reason
salons gatherings in which intellectual and political ideas were exchanged during the Enlightenment
social contract an agreement between people and their government, stating that people would give up some of their freedom and in return,, their government would provide them with peace, security, and order
John Locke English philosopher and founder of British empiricism
Jean-Jacques Rousseau Swiss-French political philosopher; valued social contract
Baron de Montesquieu French jurist and political philosopher; he explored democratic theories of government
philosophes philosophers of the Enlightenment
Voltaire French philosopher and author; he was a supporter of Deism, the idea that God was no longer involved with the universe after creating it
enlightened despots the absolute monarchs in 18th century Europe who ruled according to the principles of the Enlightenment
Stamp Act a law passed by the British Parliament that raised tax money by requiring the American colonists to pay for an official stamp whenever they bought paper items
Thomas Jefferson American statesman; third president of the United States; he was a member of two Continental Congresses, chairman of the committee to draft the declaration
Benjamin Franklin American statesman; he was a philosopher, scientist, inventor, writer, publisher, first U.S. postmaster, and member of the committee to draft the Declaration
George Washington First president of the United States; he commanded the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War
Treaty of Paris the agreement that officially ended the American Revolution and established British recognition of the independence of the United States
James Madison American statesman; he was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention and the fourth president of the United States
federal system a system of government in which power is divided between a central, or a federal, government and individual states
Created by: lcs1340020