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Chapter 18

absolute monarch a ruler that has unlimited power and authority over his or her people
divine right the belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
Charles V King of Spain; Holy Roman Emperor from 1519 to 1558; his opposition to the Protestant Reformation embroiled Spain in a series of wars throughout his reign
Peace of Augsburg an agreement between states in the Holy Roman Empire that gave each German prince the right to decide whether his state would be Catholic Protestant
Philip II King of Spain, Naples from, and Portugal; he led Roman Catholic efforts to recover parts of Europe from Protestantism. He was defeated by England and the Netherlands.
El Greco Greek painter in Spain; chiefly religious in nature, his works express the spirit of the Counter, or Catholic, Reformation
Diego Velazquez Spanish painter; he painted in a realistic style but also worked in impressionism towards the end of his career
Miguel de Cervantes Spanish novelist, dramatist, and poet; he wrote Don Quixote de la Mancha.
Sister Juana de la Cruz Mexican nun and poet; she wrote poetry, prose, and plays
Spanish Armada a greet fleet assembled by Spain in 1558 for an invasion of England
Huguenot a French Protestant
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre August 24,1572; a massacre of 6,000 to 8,000 Huguenots in Paris authorized by King Charles IX and his mother Catherine de Medici
Henry IV King of Germany from 1056 to 1106 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1056 to 1106; he was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII over bishop appointments; he acknowledged the pope's authority and was readmitted to the church
Edict of Nantes a declaration of French king Henry IV in which he promised that Protestants could live peacefully in France and were free to establish houses of worship in selected French cities
Louis XIII King of France from 1610 to 1643; a relatively weak ruler, he let Cardinal Richelieu, his chief minister, hold great sway during his reign
Cardinal Richelieu French minister and chief minister of King Louis XIII; he wanted to strengthen the monarchy and fought against Huguenot resistance to the Catholic monarchy
Louis XIV King of France from 1643 to 1715; known as the Sun King, he built the palace at Versailles as a means to consolidate absolute power; a series of wars at the end of his long reign drained Frances wealth
War of the Spanish Succession war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France
Treaty of Utrecht treaty that ended the War of the Spanish Succession; it gave the throne to Louis XIV's grandson but also stated that France and Spain would never be ruled by the same monarch
Puritans English Protestants of the late 1500s and most of the 1600s who wanted to "purify" the Church of England through reforms
Charles I King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1625 to 1649; his conflict with Parliament started the English Civil War. He was beheaded in 1649
Royalists supporters of the government by a monarch; used as a name for supporters of England's King Charles I
Oliver Cromwell Lord Protector of England; in 1642 he led Parliament's forces in deposing King Charles I; he became ruler of England in 1653
commonwealth a republican government based on the common good of all the people
Restoration the period of the reign of Charles II in England when the monarchy was restored after the collapse of a previous leaders government
Charles II King of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1660 to 1685 and eldest son of King Charles I; he was asked by the Parliament to rule England after the death of Oliver Cromwell
William and Mary King William III and Queen Mary II rulers of Great Britain who replaced King James II as a result of the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution a nonviolent revolution in which leaders of Britain's Parliament invited Mary, daughter of King James II, and her husband, the Dutch ruler William of Orange, to replace King James II
constitutional monarchy a monarchy limited by certain laws
boyars wealthy Russian landowners
czar "caesar", title taken by the ruler of Russia
Ivan IV Grand duke of Russia and the first Russian ruler to assume to title a czar; also known as Ivan the Terrible.
Peter the Great Czar of Russia from 1682 to 1725; he transformed Russia into modern state. He was an absolute monarch who brought the ways of Western Europe to Russia and made various reforms
westernization the adoption of the culture and ideas of Western society, namely Europe and America
Catherine the Great Czarina of Russia from 1762 to 1796; ruling with absolute power, she introduced a number of reforms that extended Peter the Great's policy of "westernization"
Thirty Years' War a conflict in Europe that begain as a Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire.
Treaty of Westphalia treaty ending the Thirty Years' War; it reduced the power of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Maria Theresa Austrian archduchess, queen of Bohemia and Hungary from 1740 to 1780; she took the throne after the War of the Austrian Succession.
Frederick the Great King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786; through victories in a series of wars with Austria, Prussia's main rival for dominance among the German states, Frederick made Prussia a major European power in the late 1700s
Created by: lcs1340020