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Unit #9: Development

Ap Human Geography MC #1

TermDefinition
Development A process of improvement in the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) The value of the total output of goods and services produced in a country in a given time period (normal one year)
Less Developed Country (LDC) Also known as developing country, a country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development
Literacy rate The percentage of a country's people who can read and write
More developed country (MDC) Also known as relatively developed country or a developed country, a country that has progressed relatively far along a continuum of development
Primary sector The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although com times by mining, fishing, and forestry
Productivity The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it
Secondary Sector The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials
Structural adjustment program Economic policies in LDCs by international agencies to encourage international trade, such as raising taxes, reducing government spending, controlling inflation, selling publicly owned utilities to private corps, & charging citizens more for services
Tertiary sector The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, and sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people in exchange for payment
Value added The gross value of the product minus the costs of the raw materials and energy
Anthropocentric human centered: in sustainable development, anthropocentric refers to ideas that focus solely on the needs of people without considering the featured with whom we share the planet of the ecosystems upon which we depend
Fast world Areas of the world, usually the economic core, that experience greater levels of connection due to high-speed telecommunications and transportation technologies
Globalization The idea that the world is becoming increasingly interconnected on a global scale such that smaller scales of political and economic life are becoming obsolete
Gross National Product the total value of goods and services, including income received from abroad, produced by the residents of a country within a specific time period, usually one year
Industrialization Where countries grow economically, from producing basic goods to using modern factories for mass-producing goods. National economies are geared mainly toward the delivery of services and exchange of information
Net national product A measure of all goods and services produced by a country in a year, including production from its investments abroad, minus the loss or degradation of natural resource capital as a result of productivity
Non-renewable resources Natural resources, such as fossil fuels, that do not replenish themselves in a time frame that is relevant for human consumption
outsourcing sending industrial process out for external production..increasingly applies not only to tradition industrial functions, but also to the contracting of service industry functions to companies to overseas locations (operating costs remain low)
Periphery countries that usually have low levels of economic productivity, low per capita incomes, and generally low standards of living. the world economic periphery includes Africa (except for South Africa), parts of South America, and Asia
Service based economies Highly developed economies that focus on research and development, marketing, tourism, sales, and telecommunications
Sustainable development The idea that people living today should be able to meet their needs without prohibiting the ability of future generations to do the same
World cities groups of cities that form an interconnected, internationally dominant systems of global control of finance and commerce
Core The zone of greatest concentration or homogeneity of the culture traits that characterize a region
Core-periphery model A model that describes how economic, political, and cultural power is spatially distributed between dominant core regions, and more marginal or dependent semiperipheral and peripheral regions
Deindustrialization process by which companies move industrial jobs to regions with cheaper labor, leaving the original region to switch to a service economy and to work through a period of high unemployment; the loss of industrial activity in a region
Gender equity a measure of the opportunities given to women compared to men within a given country
Human Development Index (HDI) measure used by the United Nations that calculates development not in terms of money or productivity, but in terms of human welfare; it evaluates human welfare based on three parameters: life expectancy, education, and income
industrial revolution the term applied to the social and economic changes in agriculture. commerce, and manufacturing that resulted from technological innovations and specialization in late 18th century Europe
industrialized countries These countries include Britain, France, The United States, Russia, Germany, and Japan, that were all at the forefront of industrial production and innovation through the middle of the 20th century.
manufacturing regions A region in which manufacturing activities clustered together
purchasing power parity accounts for what money actually buys in different countries
Rostow's stages of development A model of economic development that describes a country's progression which occurs in five stages transforming them from least-developed to most-developed countries.
semi-periphery newly industrialized countries with median standards of living, such as Chile, Brazil, India, China, and Indonesia. Semi-periphery countries offer their citizens relatively differs economic opportunities but also have extreme gaps between rich and poor.
slow world the developing world that does not experience the benefits of high-speed communications and transportation technology ex: The middle east, Africa, central Asia, Colombia, PerĂº, Ecuador, Bolivia
transnational corporations A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located
world system theory Immanuel Wallerstein: the emergence of a core, periphery, & semiperiphery in terms of economic and political connections (beginning of exploration in the late 15th century- present) maintained through increased economic access
Created by: luluamberaphg