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BBC Pharm

Ch 18: More chemotherapeutic oncepts

side effects from anticancer drugs generally result from what? inhibition of cell turnover (ex: GI tract cell turnover is really fast) resulting in nausea, vomitting, bone marrow depression
Side effects of 6-MP? bone marrow depression (severe), hepatotoxicity.
6-MP is the drug of choice for what? ALL
what is cytarabine the DOC for? AML
major side effects of cytarabine? stomatitis, nausea, vomitting (due to interference with nucleic acid)
5-FU side effects? nausea, vomitting,
actinomycin major side effects? dose limiting bone marrow suppression, stomatitis, alopecia,
doxorubacin side effects? same as actinomycin, but causes red urine and cardiac toxicity that manifests as dilated cardiomyopathy. can be used for AML, ALL, lymphomas, ovarian and breast cancer
bleomycin used primarily for what type of cancers? genitourinary, as well as lympnhomas, and is one of the drugs of choice for testicular cancer.
primary side effect of bleomycin? lung fibrosis
vincristine is one of the drugs of choice for what cancer? Hodgkins lymphoma
vinblastine has a similar mechanism of action to what other drug? vincristine
vinblastine is the drug of choice for what cancer? testicular cancer, and can be used for lymphoma. its primary ADR is bone marrow suppression.
side effects of mechlorethamine? severe BMD, has potential to induce secondary cancers, such as leukemia. like all other alkylating agents, is particularly effective against hematologic malignancies (leukemia nad lymphomas)
what type of drug is cyclophosphamide? alkylating agent, so it can cause secondary cancers
cisplastin is the DOC for what? primary side effect? testicular and bladder cancer. since it is a heavy metal, its primary side effect is damage to the nervous sytem and kidneys. related drugs include carboplatin and oxaliplatin.
L asparginase can be used in the treatment of what? ALL, but not a first line drug for this disease
MOA of chlorambucin? similar to mechlorethamine. like all alkylating agents, it, too, is extremely bone marrow toxic. has ptential for generating secondary cancer(particularly leukemias).
leuprolide and flutamide are drugs to treat what? prostate cancer.
side effects of leprolide? hot flashes. it is a synthetic analog of GnRH. causes suppression of sex hormone synthesis
side effects of flutamide? gynecomastia. it antagonizes the testosterone receptor, blocking the activation of testosterone. result is decreased testosterone, causing gynecomastia.
MOA of hydroxyurea? inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, an enzyme key to nucleotide synthesis in white blood cells. it is an effective inhibitor of white blood cell proliferation. primary use is for treatment of leukemias. bone marrow toxic,
ATRA, MOA? all trans retinoic acid, version of vitamin A. binds mutated form of retinoic acid receptor that is found only in cells of AML subtype 3 (15:17 translocation). by binding to retinoic acid receptor, it causes blasts o mature
major side effect of ATRA? DIC
MOA of tamoxifeN? estrogen receptor modulator that works to inhibit estrogen receptors specifically in breast tisue. accordingly, it is used in the treatment of breast cancer, and prophylactically in owmen who are at risk for dev of breast cancer.
adverse effects of tamoxifen? hof flashes, increased risk of DVT, PE. increases incidence of endometrial cancer.
examples of taxanes? paclitaxel, docetaxel.
MOA of taxanes? inhibiting microtubule disassembly. Cells are able to form microtubules and divide, they cannot disassemble the microtubules, resultin gin apoptosis.
major side effect of taxanes dose limiting bone marrow suppression
main uses of taxanes? breast, lung, ovarian cancers
hydroxyurea..what disease is it important for? mOA? sickle cell disesae, good because it induces the formation of fetal hemoglobin.
Created by: aferdo01