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WH 10: Unit 11

The Cold War

TermDefinition
International Military Tribunal (IMT) International organization in charge of trying Nazi criminals for war crimes after WWII, they led the Nuremberg trials.
Nuremberg Trials Trials held by the International Military Tribunal in the city of Nuremberg Germany. Here Nazi officials were charged with war crimes.
Yalta Conference Meeting between the "Big Three" Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill in 1945 where they decided to divide Germany into four zones of occupation.
Division of Berlin into 4 Zones of Occupation Germany and Berlin were each divided into four sections. The British, French, Americans, and Soviet each got a section of Germany.
East Germany 1/4th of Germany controlled by the Soviet Union alone and had the capital of Germany (Berlin)
West Germany 3/4ths of Germany controlled by the British, French, and Americans
East Berlin 1/4th of Berlin controlled by the Soviet Union
West Berlin 3/4ths of Berlin controlled by the British, French, and Americans
Iron Curtain Refers to the imaginary line between Eastern European communist governments and Western European democratic governments. Comes from a speech by Winston Churchill
United Nations International organization formed after WWII to protect the
General Assembly Part of the United Nations in which every member nation gets one vote
Security Council Another part of the United Nations, made up of 11 nations including the five permanent member nations: U.S., Soviet Union, France, Great Britain, and China. This council discusses serious issues of security
Universal Declaration of Human Rights Declaration passed in 1948 by the UN which gave rights to every individual, and abolished slavery
Demilitarization One of the processes the U.S. forced Japan to adopt after WWII. Japan had to disband or get rid of their army.
Democratization One of the processes the U.S. forced Japan to adopt after WWII. They chose to create a constitutional monarchy based on Great Britain's government
Containment Policy of the United States during WWII, started during Truman's administration. The goal was to contain or stop the spread of communism
Truman Doctrine The policy of giving countries money so long as they RESISTED the Soviet Union
Marshall Plan Plan to rebuild Western Europe, cost the U.S. 12 billion dollars. Most went to Great Britain and France
Nationalist Party (of China) The party in China that overthrew the Qing Dynasty, originally led by Sun Yixian and later by Jiang Jieshi and Chiang Kai-shek
Sun Yixian The original leader of Nationalist China who made 3 promises to the people of China when he ousted the emperor and the Qing Dynasty. He promised 1. nationalism 2. democracy 3. increased wealth for the average person
Chinese Communist Movement Party originally led by Mao Zedong. Tried to gain power from the Nationalists
Mao Zedong Leader of the communist party of China, made friends with the peasants
Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek) The individual who takes over Nationalist China after Sun Yixian dies, his government became less democratic over time
Chinese Civil War Civil war between the Chinese Communists and Chinese Nationalists. They are fighting to control China. They fight in the 1930s and up to WWII then after WWII from 1946-1949 and the Chinese Communists win.
Red Army The name of the Chinese Communist army led by Mao Zedong. (Refers to Lenin's Russian Red Army that defeated the White Army) In this case the Nationalists faced off against the Red Chinese Army
Long March The 6,000 mile journey that Mao Zedong forced his Red Army to march in order to avoid the much larger and better armed Nationalist Chinese army
Taiwan An island off the coast of China where the Nationalist army fled too after the communists defeated them
People's Republic of China New name of China after Mao Zedong and the communist party take over China
Great Leap Forward The name of Mao Zedong's economic program which forced industrialization and the movement of individuals into communes. Overall this economic program failed, and failed miserably.
Communes Large communal farms that Mao forced the people to work on during the Great Leap Forward. They were discontinued after 20 million people died.
Cultural Revolution Mao's program of army Chinese teenagers known as the Red Guards and getting them to kill intellectuals as well as any one who opposed Communist China
Red Guards The teenagers that Mao armed during the Cultural Revolution.
Deng Xiaoping Took over communist China after Mao Zedong and helped make China a market economy
Cold War A war in which the two parties do everything EXCEPT for attacking each other directly. The Cold War refers to a time in which the U.S. and U.S.S.R. struggled to dominate the world, the two powers never directly fought each other. 1945-1990.
Blockade of West Berlin West Berlin was controlled by the U.S., British, and French, the Soviet Union in an effort to weaken West Berlin and perhaps take control of the area cut off all roads into and out of West Berlin so no one could get in or out
Berlin Airlift Period of time in which the U.S. airlifted supplies in to West Berlin. So that the city and the people could survive, continued until the U.S.S.R. withdrew the blockade around West Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Organization that includes Western Europe, the U.S. and Canada in which the organizations agree to support each other militarially
Warsaw Pact Formed by the U.S.S.R. in response to NATO these were countries that were aligned with the Soviet Union (in the Soviet block)
Berlin Wall Wall built by the U.S.S.R. that split West Berlin from East Berlin. Eventually it was dismantled at the end of the war. Served as a symbolic as well as economic division of East (communism) and West (democratic)
Nonaligned Countries Countries that didn't make an alliance with either the U.S. or the U.S.S.R. during the Cold War
Hydrogen bomb (H-bomb) Even more deadly than the original atomic weapons that were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, originally owned by just the Soviets and the U.S. and eventually more countries would develop the technology
Brinkmanship Willingness to go to war, a policy of countries not willing or wanting to back down from conflict (very different from the time after WWI)
Korean War War in which Communist North Korea supported by the Soviet Union attacked democratic South Korea supported by the U.S. the U.S. and UN forces pushed North Korea back to the border with China and the conflict ended with a cease-fire at the 38th parallel.
38th parallel The division between North and South Korea immediately following WWII and again after the Korean War. The division at the 38th parallel is the current border today
Douglas MacArthur The U.S. general who led the UN and U.S. forces during the Korean War
Ceasefire The decision made at the end of the Korean War in which the individuals made the decision to stop fighting, unofficial end to the conflict.
Ho Chi Minh Leader of the Communist Northern Vietnam, he would continually fight to make Vietnam one complete communist country
Domino Theory The idea that if one country fell to communism than all countries would fall to communism. It encourages the policy of containment
Ngo Dinh Diem South Vietnamese government leader who ruled a ruthless dictatorship. The U.S. would support his non-communist government
Vietcong Communist rebels in South Vietnam who opposed Ngo Dinh Diem
Vietnam War The U.S. sent military advisers and eventually troops into Vietnam in order to help South Vietnam fight off attacks from the Vietcong
Gulf of Tonkin Event in which 2 U.S. destroyers were sunk in the Gulf of Tonkin. After this event Congress authorized the president to send U.S. troops to help defend South Vietnam.
Cuban Missile Crisis Event in which the U.S. and U.S.S.R. almost launched nuclear weapons on each other. Eventually the U.S.S.R. backed down and no nuclear weapons were dropped.
Fidel Castro The leader of the communist revolution in Cuba
Bay of Pigs Incident in which the U.S. CIA tried to train the Cubans to invade Cuba and overthrow the communist Cuban government. The invasion failed MISERABLY. It made U.S. and Cuban relations worse.
Khrushchev Leader of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis
John F. Kennedy President of the United States during the Cuban Missile Crisis
Perestroika The policy of economic restructuring. When Gorbachev input this policy he allowed people to own personal property making them less communist. The whole economic system began to unravel.
Mutually Assured Destruction Mutually Assured Destruction is a policy that encourages individuals not to use nuclear weapons against a country that has them. Catchphrase "If you you yours I'll use mine"
Detente Is a policy of lessening Cold War tensions
Mikhail Gorbachev Final leader of the Soviet Union. He would practice detente and use the policies of perestroika and glasnost
Glasnost Is the policy of openness. When Gorbachev input this policy he allowed people to question the U.S.S.R. government, have free media, and to criticize the government. It built opposition to the communist government
Created by: thompsonce