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infection control review notes

Relapse is the recurrence of symptom
germicide destroy disease causing microbes.
antiseptics are used to remove or control microorganisms
employees must be given PPE if needed by their employee
OSHA occupational safety and health administration (law that protect patients/ healthcare workers from potentially harmful substance in a medical facility)
Hepatitis B is a liver inflammation
Hepatitis B immunization is given in three injections and must be provided free by your employer within 10 days after you start to work. The vaccine is given intra-muscular/ second injection is given 4 weeks after the first injection and the third is given 6 months after the 1st
your hand can become contaminated even if you wear gloves so you have to wash or use hand sanitizer after you remove the gloves.
you must follow standard precautions with all body fluids, secretions and excretion (anything that comes out of your body)
vector is a living organism that carries disease (tick)
Hand antisepsis with an alcohol-based is more effective than hand washing in reducing nosocomial infection.
Nosocomial infection infection acquired after you enter the hospital
pyemia is pus-forming microbes in the blood.
parenteral cuts, pierces or injections into the skin.
sterile free of all microbes
the immune system produces antibodies
inherited cause by gene.
interferon protective protein that is produced when cells are exposed to the virus.
Palliative treatment relieves the symptoms of a disease. (substance that relieves or alleviated the symptoms of a disease without curing the disease.
Spores has a hard out shell -can only be killed by heat and steam (the use of autoclave)- Bacterial cells forms spores
anaphylaxis severe allergic reaction
urticaria hives
absence of symptoms of a disease is said to be in remission
Permeability allows substances to pass across the blood vessel membrane.
antiseptics are used for skin preparation before surgery (alcohol is not use for skin preparation in surgery but is use for skin preparation for injection)
pathogens prefer a neutral pH.
Asymptomatic host carries infectious material.
Microbes require moisture to live.
Anaerobic microorganisms thrive without oxygen.
Viral infection cannot be cured with antibiotics because viruses are not cells but parasites within a cell. (ex: colds therefore you treat symptomatically)
your skin is the first line of protection against infection.
Eye glasses are not safety glasses and do not provide adequate eye protection.
microbes can collect under your artificial nails.
hand sanitization is effective against pathogens.
viral cells take over DNA or RNA cellular material.
Your should never recap a used needle. (only unused needles can be recapped.)
Exposure control plan outline the method for infection control (a plan that you use after you have been exposed)
Hand washing using friction and running water help remove transient bacteria
do not wear jewelry to work because microbes collect in jewelry.
Sterilization destroys all microorganisms.
all body fluid with blood are infectious must be contained, neutralized with a bleach solution and cleaned up using your PPE.
You place all use needles and anything that can cut are pierces the skin into a sharp container (non puncture container)
Urine is not a potentially infectious fluid (even though all body fluids secretions and excretions are to be hazardous)
all infectious material must be transported in leak proof containers
engineering controls are methods and materials used to protect healthcare workers from accidental exposure.
PPE includes all protective supplies
Sanitizing hands can break the chain of infection
cell-mediated immunity occurs at the sire of infection (attacks the source of infection at the cellular level) 9causes phagocytosis.)
Latent infection is persistent with recurring cycles of symptoms
Inflammation mediators increases blood flow and permeability of blood vessel walls
Humoral immunity results in an antigen/antibody reaction
asepsis is maintained by sanitizing and disinfecting
shingles occur when a latent virus causes an infection (if you had the chicken pox then you have the shingles virus)
If you get something into your eye infectious stat. flush your eyes it is the key to preventing infection.
Ultrasonic cleaners (use of vibration) work without the danger of injury from sharp instruments.
Autoclave used to sterilize equipment w/ heat, steam and pressure.
Sharps container used to store used sharp objects that cut or stick
Infection control prevent the spread of diseases
Order of chain of infection Agent, portal of exit, mode of transmission, portal of entry, susceptible host.
Mode of transmission how the infection is transferred (move around)
Medical Asepsis medical cleaning technique
Dry Heat Sterilization used on instruments that easily corrode
Disinfection Germicide (cleaner) used of physical or chemical means to destroy pathogens or their components on inanimate surfaces or objects.
Barrier Protection PPE protective clothing provides a barrier against infection
Hand washing is the most important part of infection control
Latex sensitive is a allergic reaction
Antibodies immunoglobulin's produced by the immune system in response to bacteria, viruses
antigen a foreign substance that causes the production of a specific antibody
Autoimmune the body reacts against its own tissue
Candidiasis infection caused by yeast (typically affects the vaginal area)
coagulate forms into clots
contaminated soiled with pathogens (infectious)
Fomites Contaminated, nonliving objects (equipment)
Opportunistic infection infection caused by a normally nonpathogenic organism is a host whose resistance has been decreased. 9such as individual with HIV)
Permeable allow a substance to pass or soak through
Relapse recurrence of the symptoms
Resident bacteria live in or on a certain part of the body
Rhinitis inflammation of the mucus membranes in the nose.
Acute infection rapid onset of symptoms (last a short time)
Tinea Fungal skin disease (that result in the skin scaling, itching and inflammation)
Transient bacteria bacteria temporarily living in or on certain body parts such as the hands.
disease any sustained, harmful alteration of the normal structure function or metabolism of a organism or cell.
conditions required for microbial growth are nutrients, moisture, oxygen and neutral pH
The body natural protective mechanisms intact skin, mucous membranes, tiny, hair like projections called cilia (line the respiratory tract and move in coordinated upward motion to expel trapped foreign substance: and natural pH
Potentially infectious fluids Cerebrospinal fluid(CSF);mucus,synovial, pleural,pericardial,peritoneal& amniotic fluid.Vaginal&semi secretions,saliva in dental procedures,body fluid visibly contaminated w/ blood;liquid or semi liquid blood,wound drainage,unknown body fluid;human tissue
Protective Equipment contaminated with body fluid of any kind must be removed & placed in a designated area (biohazard container) the hands or any other exposed area must be washed or flushed asap. Protective eyewear and or face shield must be worn whenever splashes sprays or droplets.
Utility gloves may be reused if they are intact 9no crack, tears or punctures0 All PPE must be removed before leaving the medical facility.
CDC Recommend new approach to potentially infectious material called Universal Precautions. (center of disease control)
Sanitization is the cleaning process that reduces the number of microorganism to a safe level (remove debris such as blood/other body fluid from instruments or equipment's)
Humoral immunity created specific antibodies to combat antigens.
Chronic present over a long period of time (could be lifetime)
Latent Disease cycle through relapse and remission.
Medical asepsis is removal or destruction of pathogens
Surgical Asepsis is the destruction of all microorganisms (is use when pts. skin or mucous membranes are disrupted)
OSHA compliance guidelines include barrier protection devices (PPE) environment protection (labeling/disposal of all biohazard waste), housekeeping controls, Hepatitis b immunization and post exposure follow up (record keeping)
Legal and ethical concerns regarding medical asepsis and infection control: medical assistant are responsible for applying infection control procedures in all situations at all times to prevent cross-contamination and the development of nosocomial infection in pts.
Bacterial infectious can be treated w/ antibodies.
Pathogenic microorganisms Include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi and rickettsiae.
Requirements of employer OSHAbloodbornepathogensstandard,exposure control plan,engineeringcontrols/work practices;PPE,Exposureincidentmanagement= (documenthowtheexposureoccurred )& communicationofpotentialhazards2employees(ext: MSD book which shud b updated at lease every 3 yrs.)
Created by: sno413