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All of 7th SS

TermDefinition
Monsoon seasonal winds that bring rain in the summer and dry air in the winter
Caste System a strict system of social classes tied to Hinduism
Nirvana enlightenment; everlasting peace in Buddhism
Reincarnation when a soul is reborn into another body after a person dies; part of Hinduism and Buddhism
Karma based upon your actions; influences reincarnation; good deeds build good karma, bad deeds build bad karma
Eightfold Path the way to achieve Nirvana in Buddhism
Archipelago a chain of islands
Kami spirits in Shinto
Siddhartha Gautama founder of Buddhism; became Buddha
Muhammad founder of Islam
Confucius Chinese philosophy whose teachings became the basis for education and government in China
Where does the Indus River flow and what is its source? The Indus River begins in the Himalaya Mountains and flows through Pakistan.
Where is Mount Everest located? Himalaya Mountains
What is the purpose of the 3 Gorges Dam? To create hydroelectricity for China
Where do most Chinese live? North China Plain and near rivers and coasts
What is the Asian Brown Cloud and what problems does it cause? A brown haze of air pollution over many major cities in Asia; lung disease, alters monsoon patterns, decreases photosynthesis
What is causing the pollution in the Ganges River? Sewage, cremated bodies, dead animals, fertilizers, industrial waste
What is India’s main environmental concern? Overpopulation
What are the main beliefs of Islam? Monotheistic, 5 Pillars of Islam, belief that there is only 1 God (Allah) and Muhammad is His prophet
Who began Islam? Muhammad
What is the sacred text of Islam? Qur’an
Where is Islam mainly practiced? Southwest Asia, Pakistan, Indonesia (worldwide)
What are the main beliefs of Hinduism? Caste system, reincarnation based upon karma, monotheistic (many manifestations: Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma)
How did Hinduism begin? developed over time in India
What is the sacred text of Hinduism? Upanishads and Vedas
Where is Hinduism mainly practiced? Main religion in India, but found worldwide
What are the main beliefs of Buddhism? 4 Noble Truths, human suffering is caused by greed, follow the Eightfold Path to reach nirvana, Buddha is seen as a leader/teacher (not a god), reincarnation
How did Buddhism begin? Siddhartha Gautama
What is the sacred text of Buddhism? Triptika
Where is Buddhism mainly practiced? Asia (but found worldwide)
What are the main beliefs of Shinto? The idea that kami (spirits) are in everything
How did Shinto begin? ancient Japanese religion
What is the sacred text of Shinto? no sacred text
Where is Shinto mainly practiced? Japan
What are the main ideas of Confucianism? Philosophy about government and education, Golden Rule
What is the text of Confucianism? Analects
Where is Confucianism mainly followed? China and Asia
Why is Confucianism not considered a religion? Confucianism are guidelines for government and education, not a system of beliefs
What is the climate and geography of Asia like? Very diverse – mountains, deserts, plains
What is China’s main environmental concern? Air pollution
Which river in China is known as “China’s Sorrow” and why? Huang He because of disastrous flooding
Why is air pollution a growing problem in India? Rapid industrialization and growing population
Why is the Yangtze River important to the people of China? Provides a source of drinking water, irrigation, and transportation
Where do most people live in China? North China Plain and near rivers and coasts
How have the Himalayas impacted northern India’s development? Himalayas protected India from invaders
How do the Japanese feed their people with so little good farmland? Fishing and importing food
How has the geography of Asia affected where people live and the way in which they live? People in Asia tend to live where transportation is easier, like near rivers or oceans. Areas with fertile land, like the North China Plain and Indus River Valley, are heavily populated. People do not live in deserts, like the Gobi, or mountain.
Compare and contrast Hinduism and Buddhism. Hinduism and Buddhism both believe in reincarnation and that eventually the soul will be reunited with a universal spirit. Hinduism does not have a specific founder and the caste system. Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama.
Nationalism love for one’s country; often leads to independence movements
Colonialism when one country takes over another country
Civil disobedience a nonviolent way to protest government laws
Red Guards teenaged enforcers of the Cultural Revolution
Great Leap Forward Mao’s attempt to make China more competitive with western industry and agricultural production; massive failure
Cultural Revolution Mao’s attempt to revitalize communism in China by using the Red Guards to eliminate anyone that opposed communism; time of great chaos
Domino Theory the theory that if one country fell to communism, other countries nearby would also fall to communism
Communism government in which the government provides jobs, heath care, and housing; everyone is equal
DMZ the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Korea; along the 38th parallel
Mohandas Gandhi nonviolent leader of Indian Independence movement
Ho Chi Minh leader of Vietnam’s independence movement; leader of communists in Vietnam
Douglas MacArthur US General in charge of rebuilding Japan after WWII
Mao Zedong leader who brought communism to China
Which country colonized India? Great Britain
How did Gandhi lead the independence movement in India? Be able to list at least three specific examples of Gandhi’s protests. Nonviolent protests (civil disobedience); Salt March, boycotts, made own clothing, fasting
Why was India partitioned following independence? Religious conflict between Hindus and Muslims
Which country colonized Vietnam? France
Which modern-day countries were part of French Indochina? Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
On which 2 Japanese cities did the US drop atomic bombs during WWII? Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What were some of the changes that were included in Japan’s new constitution? Citizens could vote; Japan had to have a small army; Japan could not start another war; emperor lost his power
What type of government does Japan have now? Constitutional monarchy
What were students protesting for at Tiananmen Square in 1989? How did the government respond? Students wanted democracy in China; the government sent soldiers and tanks to arrest/kill the protestors
What happened in China after WWII? Civil War between nationalists and communists (communists won)
Why did the Korean War begin? How did it end? North Korea invaded South Korea; ceasefire ended the fighting, but a treaty was never signed; North and South Korea remain divided
Why did the Vietnam War begin? How did it end? North Vietnam invaded South Vietnam; Vietnam was reunited under communist rule
How was the United States involved in rebuilding Japan after WWII? Be able to list at least 4 examples. Citizens could vote; Japan had to have a small army; Japan could not start another war; emperor lost his power; the Us helped rebuild roads and infrastructure
How does the literacy rate impact the economy of a country? The higher the literacy rate, the more successful the economy
Why do countries need an exchange rate? In order to trade
What do the governments of China, India, and Japan all have in common? 3 branches of government; supreme court; citizens get to vote (for something)
Describe China’s government and economy. Communist controlled by the CCP (oligarchy); HOG is premier; since Mao Zedong’s death, the economy has moved from command towards market (mixed towards market)
Describe India’s government and economy. Federal republic with a parliamentary democracy; prime minister is HOG; mixed market economy
Describe Japan’s government and economy. Constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy; prime minister is HOG; emperor is HOS; mixed market economy
What type of economy does North Korea have? command
What political party controls China? Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
Why is North Korea poorer than most countries even though it has a wealth of natural resources? North Korea spends most of its money on the military and their technology is out of date
What is Japan’s parliament called? Diet
Why do the individual voters have more power in a democracy than they do in an autocracy or an oligarchy? Citizens get to vote for leaders in a democracy
Why do most economies operate somewhere between a market economy and a command economy? Countries have found that they are more successful if there is a combination of private ownership and government control
How has Japan made up for its lack of natural resources? Import raw materials and exports technology
Why does economic specialization make trade between countries easier? Countries are able to produce goods that they can trade for things that they need but do not produce
How do factors of growth impact the GDP of a country? The more a country invests in the factors of growth, the more the GDP will grow
What branch of government is responsible for making laws in a parliamentary system of government? legislative
Unitary the central government has all power
Federal national, regional, and local governments share power
Confederation independent countries agree to work together for a common purpose
Autocracy one person has total control of a country
Oligarchy a small group rules
Democracy citizens get to vote
Parliamentary Democracy democracy in which citizens elect people to parliament and members of parliament choose the prime minister (HOG)
Presidential Democracy democracy in which citizens elect the president (HOG and HOS)
Tariff a tax on imports
Embargo a halt to trade
Quota a limit on imports
Trade surplus when a country exports more than it imports (Japan)
Specialization when a country produces only the goods it can make easily and trade for what they need but do not produce
GDP Gross Domestic Product; the total value of all goods and services produced in a year in one country
Human Capital the value of a person’s skills and education
Entrepreneur a person who takes a risk to start a new business
Capital Goods goods used to make other goods
Natural Resources gifts of the earth
Market economy an economy in which supply and demand answer the three basic economic questions
Command economy an economy in which the government determines the answers to the 3 basic economic questions
Mixed economy an economy that has both command and market economy elements
What do the governments of India and China have in common? Citizens 18 and older can vote; the Head of State is a president
What do the governments of India and Japan have in common? Head of government is prime minister; parliamentary democracy; citizens have many freedoms; bicameral parliament
What do the governments of China and Japan have in common? Unitary
Who is the HOG in China? premier
Who is the HOG of India? prime minister
Who is the HOG of Japan? prime minister
Who controls the oligarchy in China? CCP
What do parliamentary and presidential democracies have in common? both democracies so citizens get to vote
What differences do parliamentary and presidential democracies have? In parliamentary, citizens elect members to parliament and the members of parliament elect the prime minister; In presidential, citizens elect the president
Place China, North Korea, India, and Japan on the economic continuum. North Korea, China, India, then Japan
Desertification the process in which grasslands turn into deserts
Deforestation the destruction of trees and rainforests
Sahel the transition zone between the Sahara desert and the rainforests
Savanna grasslands
Sahara the largest desert in the world; located in Northern Africa
Where do most people live in Africa? Near rivers and along the coasts
Which areas in the Sahara have high population densities? Along the Nile River and near oases
Where are rainforests located in Africa? in Central Africa along the Congo River
Which environmental issue is negatively impacting the rainforests? deforestation
What type of job do people in the rainforest have? logging
Where is the Sahel located in Africa? south of the Sahara and north of the rainforests
Which environmental issue is negatively impacting the Sahel? desertification
What types of jobs do people have in the Sahel? subsistence farming and herding animals
Subsistence farming when farmers only grow enough food for their families to survive
What is the relationship between literacy rate and standard of living? The higher the literacy rate, the higher the standard of living
What is the difference between ethnic groups and religious groups? Ethnic groups share a common culture, traditions, history, and language. Religious groups share a common religion.
Where do Arabs live in Africa? In the northern and eastern parts of Africa
Which religion do most Arabs practice? Islam
Where do the Ashanti live in Africa? Ghana
Which religions to the Ashanti practice? traditional religions, Islam, and Christianity
Where do the Swahili live in Africa? East Africa
Which religion do most Swahili practice? Islam
Describe the Bantu people. The Bantu people migrated from the Sahara desert throughout central and southern Africa. Many people in Africa can trace their language and cultures to the Bantu.
What are the two most common religions in Africa? Christianity and Islam
What are "water wars"? Disagreements between countries about how to share the limited fresh water resources
Why are "water wars" becoming a reality in Africa? The amount of clean fresh water is shrinking, while the population in Africa is continuing to grow.
What are the causes of desertification? overgrazing, drought, poor farming practices, and deforestation
How is desertification negatively impacting the people in Africa? Farmers are unable to use their land once it becomes a desert which leads to poverty and starvation.
How does polluted water impact people in Africa? It is difficult for people to find clean water to drink and use in Africa. Drinking polluted water can lead to sickness and even death.
Autocracy One person has total power
Oligarchy A small group of people rule
Democracy Citizens have the right to vote for their leaders
Presidential Democracy Citizens vote for president; the president is both the head of state and head of government
Parliamentary Democracy Citizens elect members to parliament, members of parliament select the prime minister; the prime minister is the head of government
Unitary The central government has control
Confederation Independent countries have the power and agree to give a little to the central government
Federal Power is divided between federal, regional, and local governments
Dictatorship One person rules by force, often relying on the military
3 Types of Citizen Participation Democracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy
3 Types of Distribution of Power Unitary, Federal, Confederation
GDP Gross Domestic Product; the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year
Entrepreneurship A person willing to risk their time and money in a new product or improved product
Human Capital The value of a person's skills and education
Capital Goods Goods used to make other goods
Natural Resources Gifts from the Earth
Specialization When countries focus on producing what they can produce easily and trade for what they need
Interdependence When countries rely on each other for goods and services; usually a result of specialization
Market Economy Supply and demand determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced
Command Economy The government determines what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Traditional Economy Traditions and customs determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Mixed Economy A combination of government and supply and demand control economic decisions
Export Goods that are sent out of the country to another
Import Goods that are brought into a country from another
Quota A limit on imports
Tariff A tax on imports
Embargo A refusal to trade with a country
The higher the literacy rate.... the higher the standard of living
What type of government does Kenya have? Republic and presidential democracy
What type of government does South Africa have? Republic and parliamentary democracy
Why has it been hard to create stable governments in Africa? Civil war and conflict between ethnic and religious groups
What is famine? What causes it? A period of time when there is a shortage of food caused by civil war, climate change, disease
Which region of Africa is most at risk for famine? Sub-Saharan Africa
Which trade barrier did the US place on South Africa in response to apartheid? embargo
What are the 4 factors of growth? human capital, capital goods, natural resources, entrepreneurship
What are the 3 economic trade barriers? quota, embargo, and tariff
How are standard of living and GDP related? the higher the GDP, the higher the standard of living
Poverty not having enough money to buy basic supplies
What are the benefits of free (voluntary) trade? increased variety; lower priced goods because of competition; companies make more money
What are the most valuable natural resources found in Africa? (4) Oil, diamonds, uranium, and gold
What is Nigeria's most valuable natural resource? Oil
What are South Africa's most valuable natural resources? Diamonds, Gold, and Uranium
How are the Republic of Kenya and the Republic of South Africa different? Kenya is a presidential democracy, while South Africa is a parliamentary democracy.
How are the educational systems in Kenya similar and different? Boys in both countries go to school more frequently than girls. Kenya has a higher literacy rate. Sudan has been hurt by civil war.
Why did South Sudan want to become independent from Sudan? South Sudan is culturally and religiously different from Sudan. South Sudan is mainly Christian, while Sudan is mainly Muslim.
How has investment in the four factors of growth impacted the economies of South Africa and Nigeria? South Africa has invested in all four factors of growth and their economy is steadily growing. Nigeria has only invested in natural resources, so their economy is not growing very much.
Between South Africa and Nigeria, which country has a faster growing economy? Why? South Africa because they invest in the four factors of economic growth.
What is malaria? How is it spread? Tropical disease spread by mosquitos
What 3 things can be done to reduce the spread of malaria? Insecticides, anti-malarial drugs, and mosquito nets
Why is it hard to combat AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa? Lack of funding for education and prevention programs; government instability
Define imperialism. when one country takes over another, usually for resources
Define nationalism. love for one's country
Define apartheid. the forced segregation between races in South Africa
Define homelands. areas where black South Africans were forced to live during Apartheid
Define African National Congress. Nelson Mandela's political party that opposed Apartheid
Define partition. to divide
Define Scramble for Africa. the race between European countries to gain colonies in Africa
Define Pan-Africanism. the idea that people of African descent share a common history and culture and should come to
Who is Nelson Mandela? Mandela opposed apartheid and was imprisoned for 27 years. He was the first black president of South Africa.
Who was Jomo Kenyatta? The first elected president of Kenya after independence
Who was F. W. de Klerk? The last president of South Africa under apartheid; worked to end apartheid and released Nelson Mandela from jail.
What problem has oil caused in Nigeria? government corruption
When did most countries in Africa gain independence? 1950s and 1960s
Why was there a civil war in Nigeria? There was a civil war over government control between the Christian south and the Muslim north
How did Kenya gain independence? voting
How did South Africa gain independence? voting
When was Africa divided into colonies? At which conference did that happen? Berlin Conference 1884-1885
Why has it been hard to build stable governments in Africa since independence? European partitioning divided ethnic groups into difficult countries and placed rival ethnic groups in the same country.
Which 2 European countries had the most colonies in Africa? UK (British) and France (French)
How did the colonial borders drawn by Europeans cause problems for the countries in Africa after independence? European partitioning divided ethnic groups into difficult countries and placed rival ethnic groups in the same country.
Which 2 European countries colonized South Africa? Netherlands (Dutch) and UK (British)
Why did France and Britain both want to control Egypt? To control the Suez Canal
Why did Europeans create colonies in Africa? To gain natural resources (raw materials), gain more land, slave trade, new markets in which to sell their goods, spread their culture and religion
Explain how Nelson Mandela and F.W. de Klerk are important figures in South African history. Nelson Mandela was the leader of the African National Congress political party and opposed Apartheid. He was the first black president of South Africa. de Klerk was the last president of South Africa during Apartheid and worked to end Apartheid.
What problems did European colonizers create when they drew political boundaries in the region? Civil war; riots; separated families and ethnic groups into different countries; unstable governments
Desalination removing salt from salt water to make drinking water
Water Rights agreements between countries about how water from rivers is used and shared
Monotheism belief in 1 god
Five Pillars 5 main beliefs of Islam
Kurds ethnic group in Syria, Turkey, and Iraq
Arabs largest ethnic group in SW Asia
Persians ethnic group located in Iran
Ethnic Group a group of people that have a shared culture and history
Strait of Hormuz connects the Persian Gulf with the Arabian Sea
Suez Canal connects the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea
Religious Group group of people that share the same beliefs
Moses led Hebrews out of Egypt
Abraham founder of Judaism; prophet of Islam, Judaism, and Christianity
Jesus founder of Christianity
Muhammad founder of Islam
Judaism – Who was the founder; What are followers called; What is the holy book? Abraham; Jews; Torah
Christianity – Who was the founder; What are followers called; What is the holy book? Jesus; Christians; Bible
Islam – Who was the founder; What are followers called; What is the holy book? Muhammad; Muslims; Qu’ran
What river do Syria, Israel, and Jordan share? Jordan River
How has building dams on rivers in Southwest Asia caused problems between countries that share the rivers? Countries downriver from the dam receive less water.
What are the two valuable natural resources used for energy found in SW Asia? Oil and natural gas
How much of the world’s oil supply is found in SW Asia? 50%
How has the discovery of oil affected the economy of those countries? Countries that have large oil deposits enjoy higher standards of living.
Countries located around which body of water have the most oil reserves? Persian Gulf
Most cities in SW Asia are located near what? Rivers
What is the climate like in SW Asia? Desert (hot and dry)
Much of SW Asia is what type of geographic feature? desert
What basic belief made Christianity different from Judaism? The belief that Jesus is the Messiah.
What are the two main branches of Islam? What issue led to the split in Islam? Shia and Sunni; they disagreed over who should lead the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad
Which river has caused conflict in Southwest Asia because of water rights? Euphrates River
What is the difference between a religious group and an ethnic group; What are three examples of each in Southwest Asia? Ethnic groups are people that share similar history and culture; three examples are Persians, Arabs, and Kurds. Religious groups are people that share similar beliefs; three examples are Christians, Jews, and Muslims.
What is OPEC? What is the purpose of OPEC? Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; the purpose is control the oil supply in the world.
How has the presence of oil in some Southwest Asian countries affected the standard of living? Countries that have large oil deposits enjoy higher standards of living than countries without oil deposits.
Anti-Semitism discrimination against Jews
Holocaust the mass murder of millions of Jews and other people during WWII
Zionism the belief that Jews should have a country in their ancient homeland (Israel)
Taliban group of radical Muslims that controlled the government of Afghanistan
Saddam Hussein the dictator of Iraq during the Persian Gulf War and Operation Iraqi Freedom
T. E. Lawrence A British soldier that served as a link between the Arabs and British during WWI
What did the British promise the Arabs in exchange for revolting against the Ottoman Empire? Gold and land
Which modern day country has the descendants of the Ottoman Empire? Turkey
What happened to the Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI? The empire collapsed and the land was divided between the winning European countries.
How have the borders drawn by European countries caused problems in the former Ottoman Empire? The borders were drawn without considering ethnic groups or historical borders, which has led to conflict.
Why did the British want land in SW Asia? oil
Who created Israel in 1948? Why? The United Nations created Israel as a result of Zionism and the Holocaust.
How did Palestinians react to the creation of Israel? Who are their allies? The Palestinians were angry, and the other Arab countries in SW Asia allied with them.
What happened right after Israel was created? What was the result? Palestinians and other Arab countries attacked Israel. Israel won and gained more land.
What caused the Persian Gulf War? Iraq invaded Kuwait in order to gain access to the Persian Gulf.
How was the US involved in the Persian Gulf War? The US sided with Kuwait and fought against Iraq.
Why were UN inspectors sent to Iraq? To make sure Iraq destroyed their weapons of mass destruction
Why did the US begin Operation Iraqi Freedom? The US saw Iraq as a threat to the US and its interests in the Middle East.
Why did the US invade Afghanistan? The government of Afghanistan supported al Qaeda, which launched the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Who was the leader of al Qaeda when the September 11 attacks occurred? Osama bin Laden
Put the 3 recent wars in SW Asia in order. Persian Gulf War; US Invasion of Afghanistan; Operation Iraqi Freedom
Autocracy One person has total power
Oligarchy A small group of people rule
Democracy Citizens have the right to vote for their leaders
Presidential Democracy Citizens vote for president; the president is both the head of state and head of government
Parliamentary Democracy Citizens elect members to parliament, members of parliament select the prime minister; the prime minister is the head of government
Unitary The central government has control
Confederation Independent countries have the power and agree to give a little to the central government
Federal Power is divided between federal, regional, and local governments
Theocracy Government ruled by a religious leader
Absolute Monarchy King or Queen has total power
Constitutional Monarchy King or Queen's power is limited by a constitution
Head of Government Leader of the government that runs the government
Head of State Government leader that has ceremonial duties and little power
Dictatorship One person rules by force, often relying on the military
Government in Saudi Arabai Absolute Monarchy
Government in Israel Parliamentary Democracy
Government in Iran Islamic Republic
Distribution of Power in Israel Unitary
Distribution of Power in Saudi Arbia Unitary
Distribution of Power in Iran Unitary
Citizen participation in Israel Democracy
Citizen participation in Iran Oligarchy
Citizen participation in Saudi Arabia Autocracy
Sharia Law Law based on the laws of Islam; practiced in Iran, Saudi Arabia, and many other Southwest Asian countries
Head of Government in Israel Prime Minister
Head of Government in Saudi Arabia King
Head of Government in Iran Ayatollah
GDP Gross Domestic Product; the total value of goods and services produced in a country in a year
4 Factors of Economics Growth Entrepreneurship, human capital, capital goods, natural resources
Entrepreneurship A person willing to risk their time and money in a new product or improved product
Human Capital The value of a person's skills and education
Capital Goods Goods used to make other goods
Natural Resources Gifts from the Earth
Specialization When countries focus on producing what they can produce easily and trade for what they need
Interdependence When countries rely on each other for goods and services; usually a result of specialization
Market Economy Supply and demand determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced
Command Economy The government determines what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Traditional Economy Traditions and customs determine what is produced, how much is produced, and for whom it is produced.
Mixed Economy A combination of government and supply and demand control economic decisions
Scarcity When there is not enough of a good
Surplus When there is more than needed of a good
OPEC Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries; controls the price of oil in the world by controlling the supply
Export Goods that are sent out of the country to another
Import Goods that are brought into a country from another
Quota A limit on imports
Tariff A tax on imports
Embargo A refusal to trade with a country
The higher the literacy rate.... the higher the standard of living
Israel is specialized in... cutting diamonds, technology, and minerals
Saudi Arabia and Iran specialize in.... Oil and natural gas
Saudi Arabia, Israel, and Turkey all have which type of economic system? Mixed Economy
How has not having natural resources impacted Israel's economy? Israel has to spend a lot money importing natural resources.
How is OPEC able to control the price of oil in the world? By controlling the supply
The higher the supply of oil.... the lower the price.
The lower the supply of oil... the higher the price.
Created by: MsBentley