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Medieval Europe


In A.D. 496, this king of the Franks became a Catholic. This won him the support of the Romans living in his kingdom. Clovis
Most powerful mayor. He wanted to unite all the Frankish nobles under his rule. Charles Martel
The is also Charles. His conquests earned him this name. This is also Charles the Great. The pope, on Christmas, placed a crown on his head and declared him the new Roman emperor. He protected the pope, when being attacked. Charlemagne
The capital of Charlemange's empire. Aachen
Where the Vikings, whose raids terrified all of Europe, came from. Located in Northern Europe. Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are all a part today. Scandinavia
Steep-sided valleys that are inlets of the sea. Fjords
Stronger king of Germany. He fought the Magyars and sent troops to Italy to protect the pope. He was declared emperor of the Romas in A.D. 962. Otto I
Otto's territory that included most of Germany and northern Italy. Two rulers that were the strongest were Frederick I and Frederick II. Holy Roman Empire
Pope Gregory I was pope from AD 590 to AD 604. He wanted all of Europe to become Christian, and asked monks to become missionaries. Gregory the Great
People who are sent out to teach their religion. Missionaries
To exclude a person from church membership. Excommunicated
An agreement between the pope and the ruler of a country. Concordat
What happened at the Battle of Tours, land why is the battle significant? In A.D. 732 Charles Martel led the Franks against the Muslims. He defeated them at the Battle of Tours. This stopped the Muslim advance into Europe, and Christianity remained Western Europe's major religion.
Why were monasteries important to Medieval Europe? Monks schooled people, provided food and rest to travelers, and offered hospital care oft the sick. They had septoria where monks made copies of important works. Over time, they began to play a role in Europe's politics.
How did Charlemange demonstrate his support for education? He tried late in life to learn to write and wanted his people to be educated too. He asked Alcuin to start a school in one of the royal palaces. Alcuin trained the children of government officials. His students studied religion,Latin,music,literature,math
What separated Britain and Ireland from the rest of Europe? The English Cannel
What was the Concordat of Worms? A new pope and the German king finally agreed that only the pope could choose bishops, but only the emperor could give them jobs in the government.
Landowning nobles governed and protected the people in return for services, such as fighting in a nobles army or farming the land. Feudalism
A noble who served The Lord with higher rank. Vassal
How did a vassal show his loyalty? By serving in his lords army. In return for the vassal's military service, a lord granted his vassal land mad permission to rule the people who lived on it. This grant to a vassal is known as fief.
Warriors in armor who fought on horseback. Knight
What could serfs not do? Leave the manor, own property, or marry without the lords approval. Most peasants were serfs.
What happened if a serf remained in a different town for more than two years? He or she was considered free
What set of rules did knights have to follow? Code of Chivalry
What were a knights three masters? A heavenly lord, am earthly lord, and his chosen lady
What happened as trade increased? Towns grew larger and several cities became wealthy from trade
Business groups Guilds
What did guilds do? Control how goods were made, set the prices at which finished goods were sold, and decided who could join.
What were the steps to become a guild? An apprentice at age 10, room and board no wages; journeyman after 5 to 7, work for wages; produce a masterpiece to join the guild, then he is a part of the guild, the members have to approve the masterpiece
What were cities considered? Dirty and smelly
Who unites the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms and drove the Vikings out of Britain? Alfred the Great
What was an area in western France, across the English Channel from England? Normandy
What king of Normandy took over England? Who did he defeat? William the Conqueror, he diverted Harold at the Battle of Haistings.
How long did William control his own soldiers and keep them loyal to him? He gave land to his Norman knights. He made them swear loyalty to him as ruler of England.
What language did William's officials and nobles in England speak? French
Who was the ruler of England who created the jury system? Henry II
Who was the ruler of England that was forced to sign the Magna Carta? King John
Why was the Magna Carta important? It took away the king's power. Stated that the king and vassal both had certain rights and duties. It helped to establish the idea that people have rights and that the power of the government should be limited.
What king established the Parliament in England? Edward I
What was France's first parliament that king Philip IV met with representatives from three classes, that conducted the first meeting of? Estates General
Why was Mascow and important city to the Slavs? It became the headquarters for the Russian branch of the Eastern Orthodox Church. At the crossroads of important trade routes
What is a crusade? A holy war
What were the crusades between? Christians and Muslim Turks
What was the first crusade? It captured the Antioch in Syria. Them later Palestine and entered Jerusalem in 1099. They created four states: Jerusalem, edessa and Antioch, and tripoli. Christians were successful.
What was the second crusade? 1174 Saladin became ruler of Egypt and united the Muslims. He declared war on the Christian states that the crusades had built. He defeated the Christians and captured Jerusalem in 1187. This was a failure
What was the third crusade? Fredrick,Richard I,and Philip II headed east to fight Saladin.Fredrick drowned,Philip went home,and Richard secured a small territory along the coast.He then agreed to a truce after Saladin promised that Christian pilgrims could travel to Jerusalem safely
What was the census William started and what did it count? Domesday Book. Counted people, manors, and farm animals
What is a grand jury and trial jury? Grand jury decided whether people should be accused of a crime. Trial jury decided whether an accused person was innocent or guilty.
Who was a famous nun, headed a covent, and composed church music? Hildegard
Who founded the first order of friars who helped the poor and served as missionaries? What were the friars called? Francis of Assisi, Franciscans
Who founded the Dominicans friars? Dominic de Guzmàn
Religious beliefs that conflict with church teachings Heresy
What did the pope set up to end heresy in the church? Inquisition
Who did church leaders mistreat and force them pout of their territory? What is this hatred called? Jews and anti-semitism
What are the two reasons Jews were hated? Refusing to become Christians and for being moneylenders who charged interest
What is a Romanesque church? Were rectangular buildings with rounded roofs called barrel vaults. Huge pillars and thick walls held them up. Windows let in little light because they were smaller and set in the thick walls
What is gothic cathedrals? Had ribbed vaults and pointed arches. They were taller and used flying buttresses. Had thinner walls and large stained glass windows.
What were the first three universities? Bobgna, Italy; Paris, France; oxford university in England
Who was the Dominican priest and friar who combined church teachings with the ideas of Aristotle and wrote summa theologia, which was a summary of knowledge on theology? Thomas aquinas
What was the everyday language of Latin church? Vernacular
Who were pushed into Ireland wells and Scotland by the Anglo Saxons? Celts
What was the plague that swept across Europe and Asia? How many people did it kill? Black Death; 38 million Europeans
What did the plague weaken? What was the result of the plague? The feudal system and changed European society. Trade declined and wages rose
A disease that spreads quickly and kills many people Plague
What war was between the English and the French over Normandy? The hundreds year war
Who was Joan of arc? A young peasant girls faith stirred French soldiers fighting in the war to take the city of Orléans. The English later captured her and burned her at the stake. She was brought by Charles. She died of heresy at inquisition
Who controlled most of Spain during the Middle Ages? Muslims
What was the only land the Muslims did not lose? Granada
Which prince and princess married and joined their kingdom into the country of Spain? Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon
What did Isabella and Ferdinand do? Wanted their country to be catholic. Set up a Spanish Inquisition to try non Christians in court. First, they focused on Jews and then Muslims
What made the hundreds year war start? When Edward II, English king, declared himself king of France
What was the first battle place of the hundreds year war? What happened there? Crécy. It took place after Edward invaded France saying he was king. English archers defeated the French king to give up some of his kingdom
The Spanish and Portuguese Christians struggle to take back the Iberian peninsula Reconquista
Created by: Hdavenport